Renaissance music (I): European music in the 15th and early 16th centuries

The period from about 1430-1600 is known in Western music history as the Renaissance. The word “Renaissance” originally meant “regeneration” and was first applied to the historical discipline of music. In research, it was later used in the history of culture and art. At first it referred to the historical period of the arts of painting, sculpture and architecture, but later the concept was expanded to include the history of music as well.

The term “Renaissance” at that time had two meanings. The first meaning was that the artists of the 15th and 16th centuries could no longer tolerate the medieval style of art and wanted to revive it. Ancient Greek and Roman art styles; the second meaning refers to the composers of the time, who wanted to revive the liberation of their personal ideology. Not wanting to be bound by religion again. Dante, Leonardo da Vinci, and Shakespeare are all from this period.

The 15th – early 16th century was the early stage of the development of the Renaissance, and three regions of Europe were more representative of music during this period: the music of England, the music of Burgundy, and the Flemish school.

First, English music.
After the Anglo-French War (1337-1453), a victorious England occupied much of France, and the territorial expansion allowed England’s The culture is more compatible and influential. One of the two most important characteristics of British music is its close relationship with folk music, and its love of intervals that are not in full harmony. (Third and Sixth Degrees). John Dunstable (c. 1390-1453) is the most prominent of English music’s composer, whose music was said at the time to be representative of Renaissance music, and who wrote scripture songs that embodied English music’s Features such as the scripture song “How Beautiful and Lovely Thou Art”.

II. Music in Burgundy
The House of Burgundy in France, as an ally, followed England to win the war at the time. The territory of the House of Burgundy could be called the Burgundy region, specifically what is now central France. The dukes of the House of Burgundy were very fond of music and kept many musicians in their homes to serve religious services and entertainment. These musicians in his family and in his domains were very competitive and wrote music that was so refreshing that a kind of “Burgundian” music was formed. The “Burgundians”, as they were also called, gradually spread their musical style. Two of the greatest composers of Burgundian music, Dufay and Benthoua, were born in Burgundy.

In the course of his travels, he absorbed musical styles from Burgundy, Italy, France, and England, making his music often described as “international”.

One of Dufy’s great works is the scripture song “Roses Opened Lately”, which was dedicated to the Dome of Florence. What’s so great about it? Remember the previous article about isometric rhythms, which Dufay used to create the church building structure 6:4:2:3 The rhythm of the work is based on the ratio of the “mass” to the “mass”.

Dufy also has the distinction of being the first composer to use a secular song as a “melody” for the Mass. To explain a little bit what a “cadenza” is, a “cadenza” is the lowest part of the voice in polyphonic music. Religious chants, but Dufay changed them to secular songs. It may also be asked here if it wasn’t stated earlier in the scripture song that the bottom part of the voice in religious music could already be changed to Secular music yet? Yes, there was a change, but the “Mass” was not fully formed at that time. Then one has to ask, what is the Mass, which is a religious ritual that took shape in the 14th century and is the main ritual of religion. Usually there is a relatively fixed program and music that is sung, and the music generally has five chapters and is very religious. Therefore, Dufay’s change of the definitive melody of the music used for the Mass to a secular song was a breakthrough and reflects the time when Renaissance Influence. Let’s listen to this breakthrough, the Lamb from Dufay’s “Pale Face” Mass.

III. Flemish musicians
Flemish music is like Burgundian music, in that there’s a region in Europe called Flanders, a region that gave birth to many musicians. The compositions of these musicians formed a musical style that eventually became known as Flemish music. Flanders is now a region that includes France, Belgium and the Netherlands, and the musicians of the Flemish school were generally Born later than the composers of the Burgundian school, they were mainly active from the second half of the 15th century to the mid-16th century. Because the Flemish and Burgundian schools were related backwards and forwards in time, and because the Flemish and Burgundian regions were not too far apart. Some historians also refer to these two schools of music collectively as the “Niederland School”. Flemish music is best represented by two composers, Ockeghem and Jochen.

Johannes Ockeghem (1420-1497) came to prominence after the death of Dufy. He studied early music in Burgundy and later served at several courts and churches. Ockeghem’s music is characterized by a strong emphasis on the “reverberation” of the human voice in all parts. He wrote a few works, the most powerful of which are the Masses. Sutra, let me explain why it’s called that before you listen to it, MI-MI is the first and last notes of the various chapters of the song The tones are all MI, and this tune has MI-E in C major at the first note and MI-A in F major at the end. (I can’t read and skip this part, so just listen.)

Ockegon: The Lamb’s Scripture from the Mi-Mi Mass.mp3

Baidu’s online storage space, also known as Baidu CD-ROM
Josquin des Prez (1441-1521) may be said to have been One of the most important composers of the Renaissance. Born in northern France, he traveled extensively throughout his life, and wrote a very diverse range of musical styles and works, and some consider him to be a ” He is a composer of “epoch-making” compositions. At the same time, he is a man who pays special attention to the expression of his own will and does not like to be bound by other people’s rules, which is too “renaissance”. “up. And further if in terms of his compositional contributions and breakthroughs, it is summarized in three points.

Firstly, his musical composition was very lyrical, and he introduced the concept of “lyricism”: music, like art, should be able to “draw” words.

Secondly, the composers of the late 15th century were particularly fond of “canons” (a strict imitation between two or more voices), and Jochen was a master of canons, with many variations.

For these two characteristics, let’s listen to his masterpiece, the Magnificat, to get a feel for it.

Raskan: Scripture Song “Ode to the Mother of God”.mp3

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Thirdly, Jocan wrote a particularly powerful mass, taking the experience of the masses of previous composers and further creating a different Masses in the mode of composition, e.g., plainchant Masses, definitive melodic Masses, imitation Masses, antecedent motive Masses, interpretive Masses. These modes of composition are different and reflect the great creativity of Wakkan.

Medieval Music (IV): French and Italian Music in the 14th Century

Europe in the 14th century became more unstable compared to before the 13th century. During this period, the religious churches began to have problems with corruption and the prestige of religion declined during this period. Between 1309 and 1377, the pope was forced to flee from Rome to Avignon, France, and during the Great Schism (1378 -1417), there were two popes, one in Rome and one in Avignon. In such an era, religious music gradually moved toward secularization, and the original medieval position of secular music gained Further established. Of the history of music in the 14th century, French and Italian music is the most representative.

I. French music
(i) “New art”

At the beginning of the fourteenth century, a number of new phenomena emerged in French music, and this new phenomenon was reflected in the further development of notation and the new The emergence of a new musical genre. The new musical trend was represented by the French composer and poet Philippe de Vitry. (de Vitry, 1291–1361).

Vitry wrote a treatise at the time called Ars nova (The New Art), in which he addressed some of the problems of “ancient art” and discussed his views on the development and improvement of music in the 14th century. In this treatise, he discussed his views on the development and improvement of music in the 14th century in relation to the problems of “ancient art”, and on the role of music in the development and improvement of music. It had a major impact on the musical world of the time. That’s why the period that followed, “French music”, is particularly known as the “Art Nouveau” period.

How did “Art Nouveau” develop and improve over “Art Moderne”? To summarize.

Firstly, Art Nouveau had a new notation. Wasn’t Franco’s equal measure notation mentioned before able to record relatively clear rhythms, but in Art Nouveau the types of rhythms were increased.

Secondly, rhythms could be “doubly divided” or “triple divided”. Previously, the religious churches were not allowed to “dichotomize” the rhythms of music, considering them “incomplete”. But now in Art Nouveau it is allowed, and there are also “triple divisions”. To put it in layman’s terms, in the past “half-beats” were not allowed, but now they are.

Thirdly, Art Nouveau has begun to use the “equal tempo” technique to create works. This is a very complex issue. In simple terms, it means that in polyphonic music, there is an A repeating rhythm appears in the vocal part, called “talea”; there is also a repeating melody in the In the vocal part, it is called “kleine” (color). This repetitive rhythm and the length of the repeated melody are determined by the composer, which makes for a more logical approach to creation.

Fourthly, Art Nouveau begins to have a “sense of harmony”, and its concept and method of termination becomes more complex.

(If you don’t understand this paragraph, please skip it, because if you do, you probably won’t remember it, haha.

One of the most iconic poetic plays of the Art Nouveau period is the Roman de Fauve’s Tale. (Fauvel). This story is mainly a mad satire of the crimes of the court and church of the time. The composers, represented by Vettori, composed the score for this poetic drama, that is, a score using these four characteristics I mentioned above. One of the pieces teaches “Fate of the Furious” and satirizes the church and political figures of the time. We can use the audio to get a feel for how the new art feels different from the music of the previous ancient art period.

(II) Mashow

Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377) was a French The most famous composer of the “Art Nouveau” period. His compositions are very varied and include both religious and secular works, with a mixture of conservative and radical styles.

Among his secular polyphonic works, the Ballade is the most representative. When composing secular works, Marceau usually sings the words in the upper part of the polyphony, leaving the other parts without words, as in the case of the ballade. The song is one of the genres in which the music is written. When composing, it is often necessary to write the uppermost part of the voice, a style of composition called the “narrative style” or “cantilevers” ( (cantilena style). There are also occasional two voices in Marceau’s compositions that have sung lyrics. We begin with a narrative song by Marceau, “Only She Can Count the Stars in the Sky.

In his religious music, Marceau composed many scripture songs. It is noteworthy that, in addition to the Art Nouveau style of composition that was popular at the time, he also used the “decomposition Melody” compositional technique and “musical concept of the suite”. The “melodic decomposition” involves adding rests between the notes of the highest part of the polyphony to create an “interlacing” of the voices. The “musical concept of the suite” is embodied in his Madonna Mass, in which he takes the five pieces of music and uses them in a way that makes them sound like a “suite”. The structure of the suite goes to layout, which may suggest the later development of the suite and the symphonic sonata style.

Italian Music
Italy was in a state of anarchy in the 14th century, with various places falling apart, all with their own local traditions. Italian music did not have a basis for the development of polyphony, so during this period Italian music was mainly mono-melodic music, its polyphony It is usually accompanied by a single melody and is somewhat improvisatory in nature. In the second half of the 14th century, French music began to influence Italian music, and Italian music gradually began to develop a relatively sophisticated Polyphonic music.

There were three main secular genres of polyphonic music in 14th-century Italy: pastoral, hunting, and balata.

Madrigal, usually two-part, without accompaniment, with lyrics about pastoral subjects, love, etc.

Caccia, usually in two parts, with instrumental accompaniment, with lyrics about exciting scenes such as hunting.

Ballata, usually in two or three parts, appears later than the first two, and is used to accompany dance music.

The representative composer of Italian music is Francesco Landini (c. 1335-1397), he was a blind composer. He was very good at writing batalas and established a particular mode of musical termination in his compositions, the “Landini termination”. In simple terms, the music ends with a 7th-6th-1st step at the end.


Medieval music (III): music theory

The more noteworthy musical theories of the Middle Ages had three components.

I. Church Tone
It was mentioned earlier that in the ancient Greek period, there were seven tonal scales: dolorous, Phrygian, lydian, mixed Lydia, para-Doria, para-Phrygia, para-Lydia. And in the medieval church tonal scales, there were eight. Although the names of these eight scales followed the ancient Greek period, the arrangement of the scales was changed. The specific eight tonal scales are in the four basic tones of Doria, Frigia, Lydia, and Mixed Lydia, plus their respective variations Form Composition. respectively Doria, Paradoria, Frigia, Paradigia, Lydia, Paradigia, Mixed Lydia, Para-Mixed Lydia Bottomia. (If you can’t remember, just assume this paragraph isn’t there.)

II. notation.
The earliest currently available sheet music on medieval music is the chant manuscript that appeared in the 9th century, where the sheet music for the notation spectrum, also known as the “Num spectrum”. The development of the Numu genealogy in the Middle Ages went through four stages.

Stage 1. It is to mark the outline of the approximate melody by marking the top of the lyrics with dots, horizontal lines, slashes, and other symbols, as follows.


Stage 2. It is the addition of one or two horizontal lines to the Newham score to indicate some relative pitch, as follows.

Stage Three. It is the addition of a couple of lines to the original Newham score that had one or two lines, which became four lines, thus making the pitch markings clearer as follows.

Stage 4. The four-line Newm can already mark the pitches almost clearly, but not yet the rhythms. In the 13th century, Franco (the same Franco who wrote Franco’s scripture songs), in his book “The Art of Measured Songs, A new system of note durations is proposed. Briefly, based on the four-line Newmus spectrum, the original notes are added with various lengths of vertical lines, or the The black dots on the notes of the Newham score get bigger, wider, more square, etc. to express the different time values. (Unfortunately, the sheet music didn’t have a picture, so we’ll make it up when we find one. (We can brainstorm.)

The music theory of Guido
In the 11th century, there was a music theorist named Guido d’Arezzo (c. 1025), who A set of choral names was invented to sing the notes of the then current Newham score to help the choir distinguish and remember whole notes when singing chants and semitone position, he wrote a hymn at the time called “Thy Faithful Ones,” and the first six syllables of the first six lines of this hymn were : ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, which he used to name the six syllables of the hexatonic scale of the time. Later, musicians changed ut to do and added a si after la, resulting in the most familiar modern The scale (do re mi fa sol la si) has been sung.

The current narrative focuses on musical content from the 13th century and earlier, with the 14th century to be included as a separate section Go and speak. Then one should ask why the 14th century is being addressed separately, but here is a brief explanation.

In the Middle Ages, there was a more detailed historical phase, namely, the “Ancient Period” and the “Art Nouveau Period”. The “Archaic period” refers in particular to the period from the twelfth to the thirteenth centuries, when religious music was more mature, while the “Art Nouveau period” refers to the period from the twelfth to the thirteenth centuries, when religious music was more mature. “represents the new musical trends of the Middle Ages. The “Art Nouveau period” refers mainly to the 14th century, and its stylistic features are particularly prominent in French and Italian music. .

Therefore, the 14th century needs to be addressed differently from the music that preceded it. In our next article, we will focus on the French and Italian music of the “Art Nouveau” period of the Middle Ages of the 14th century.

Medieval Music (II): Secular Music

Secular and religious music in the Middle Ages developed together, with the two intermingling and influencing each other in their development. Although religious music has been trying to avoid secularization, as can be seen in the previous article, there was still a secularization of religious music The trend. The secular music also continues to absorb content in religious music. Unlike religious music, secular music is mainly used for entertainment and lyricism, etc., and cannot be used for Christian rituals, which makes secular Music took on its different styles and characteristics.

The secular music of the Middle Ages as far as can be attested at present is from the 11th century, and since then, languages were gradually established throughout Europe . The creators of the music in the regions began to create secular music in the dialects of the regions, the creators of which, in addition to the wandering artists of the regions, were more Three groups of people are represented: the French troubadours, the German oenophiles and the artisan singers. These men composed many secular songs, representing the landscape of secular music in the 11th-14th centuries of the Middle Ages.

I. Troubadours
The troubadours, active from the 11th century to the end of the 13th century, began to appear in the south of France, and most of these troubadours were aristocrats. The minstrels, knights, kings, and talented people, this class of minstrels is called the Troubadour. In the south there are also bardesses called Trobairitz, who are poets as well as musicians and often write their own songs in Proven├žal (Occitan). These were poets as well as musicians, often composing works in the Proven├žal (Occitan) language to express their personal feelings. In the middle of the 12th century, influenced by the south of France, troubadours also began to appear in the north of France, with northern troubadours called “Trouvere” (Trouvere). They were composed in the predecessor of modern French (Oui), not very different in form and content from the Troubadours. About 5,000 of the poems and 2,000 of the melodies produced by the troubadours have been preserved.

The subject matter of the southern and northern troubadours was mostly love, or more specifically, “courtly love”. In today’s parlance, it is the love of the “spare tire” and the “goddess”. In the Middle Ages, European aristocrats had the custom of “marriage”, the emphasis was on the “family”, a prestigious family lady, usually the “family”. They would marry into another family with a prestigious position. The minstrels were often of a lower class and could not marry noble ladies. But interestingly enough, these bards also preferred to fall in love with a lady who was of a higher class than themselves or who was married, giving rise to “Courtly Love”. The secular music composed by these troubadours is essentially an assortment of lyrical expressions of love, with complaints, blessings, and Sadness, etc. There are, of course, bards who are more highbrow, who write about nature, politics, history, religion, war, etc. Works.

Musical compositions composed by bards tend to be one word to one sound, with freer melodies and more complex rhythms, often using AAB The structure of the form is of a certain improvisational nature. Let us listen to the southern troubadour Bernart de Ventadorn (1130- 1190) composed “I Saw a Lark Fly High”.

Bernard, the eldest brother, used to work in the house of a French countess, and coincidentally, he fell in love with the countess. He wrote a lot of songs for the countess, and the two of them got tired of each other every day. But unfortunately, the countess married away to England. Dying There. “I Saw the Lark Flying High,” which expresses Bernard’s rather sad feelings about the Countess’s lost love after her long marriage.

II. Love Poem Hand.
From the 12th to the 14th centuries, minstrel-like “love poets” (Minnesinger. The German word Minne means “courtly love”.) Minneurs are more abstract and romantic than minstrels, and their expressions of love are not limited to love. At the same time, the oenophiles were not limited to love, but also dealt with many other subjects.

In the 12th century, Walther von der Fogelweider (Walther von der Volgelweide) was a well-known fetish poet of the time. He worked in the home of the older man who had led the Crusades, and he followed the older man in the Crusades, eventually seeing Jerusalem . One of his compositions, “Blessed Is My Life,” was probably written after he saw Jerusalem. Let’s hear it.

III. Artisan Singers

In the 14th century, the German “Meistersinger” followed the German fond poets. Also known as “celebrity singers”. Their composition has changed compared to that of the troubadours and poetophiles, the artisan singers being, as the name suggests, a group of artisan singers! They had their own guilds and would often organize “singing competitions”, which developed well into the 16th century. The artisan singers, because of their different status from the minstrels and poetophiles, seem to have been more focused on the pursuit of music rather than just on the “singing”. It’s love.

IV. instrumental music
Instrumental music in the Middle Ages was only used in secular music, as it was not available in medieval Christianity. The instrumental music of this period was largely dance music and relatively simple in musical structure.

In terms of musical instruments, the medieval instruments were still in the initial stages of development, and the more representative instruments were.

Vielle, a general term for bowed stringed instruments, is the predecessor of the 16th-century vielle and the modern violin.

The harp (harp), a pizzicato stringed instrument, can also be found in some medieval historical sources.

Lute, plucked stringed instrument, forerunner of the modern guitar and lute.

Pipe organ, the oldest keyboard instrument. It originated in ancient Greece in the 3rd century B.C., when it was powered by water pressure to propel the sound through the windpipe. In the Middle Ages, pipe organs began to use bellows for their sound. In the Middle Ages, in addition to the large church organ, there were also two types of small, portable organs, which gave way to the later keyboard instruments, the organ and the piano. The foundation for the development of the

It is worth mentioning that most of the instruments mentioned above seem to have their origins in Asia.

Medieval music (I): religious music

Generally speaking, the Middle Ages in Europe refers to the period from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 to the beginning of the Renaissance in the 15th century. The name “Middle Ages” was also invented by the Renaissance people, specifically during the “Ancient Roman Hellenistic period.” The period between the “Renaissance” and the “Middle Ages”. The name “Middle Ages” is often used in a pejorative sense to describe this “dark period” of decadence and religious envelopment.

Medieval music is divided into two time periods and four levels.

The two time periods are the 5th – 13th centuries and the 14th century.

The four levels are: religious music, secular music, and music theory in the 5th-13th century period; in the 14th century period, I explain one main level, French and Italian music.

Since the Middle Ages were mainly “overshadowed” by Christianity, religious music naturally played a relatively important role.

I. Gregorian Chant

As mentioned in the previous article, Christianity has different rituals in different parts of Europe, and different rituals have different music, which It made the ritual system of the churches in the regions of the time very complicated. In the Middle Ages, Christianity solved this problem. It is said that the man who solved the problem was Pope Gregory I (reigned about 590-604).

The music used in Christian ceremonies is called chant. At that time, Pope Gregory I collected and compiled a set of chants, which were then used throughout the country. It is named after him and is called “Gregorian Chant”.

There is a legend here that is very interesting. When Gregory was compiling this chant, a dove sang it to him frantically in his ear. Stenographer (distressed stenographer).

Through the audio we can determine some of the basic characteristics of Gregorian chant music: single melody, Latin chant, free rhythm, narrow range, rustic style, etc.

Gregorian chant is an important symbol of the development of religious music in the Middle Ages, on which the subsequent religious music has developed and changed.

II. Polyphonic music

As mentioned above, the early religious music of Gregorian chant was usually monophonic. But from the end of the 9th century, “polyphonic music” began to appear. The term “polyphonic music” refers to music for two or more voices at the same time.

(I) Algernon

In the 9th century, the first polyphonic music appeared, called “Algernon”. “It usually has two parts, one for Gregorian chant and a new part over Gregorian chant. Or the “parallel” voices below. Parallel” is an early form of polyphonic music, but it also appears later on in the same chorus as Gregorian chant, “oblique progression”, and “parallel”. “Backwards”, “mixed” forms.

(ii) Notre Dame de Paris Redeployment

During the 12th century and the first half of the 13th century, a new style of polyphonic composition arose in Notre Dame de Paris, France, established mainly by two men, Leonan and Perrotin.

1. Leonan.

Leonin (c. 1163-1190) was a poet who worked at Notre Dame in Paris and was also a Composer: Leonan has written a collection of music called “The Complete Works of Algernon”. Leonan has written a collection of music entitled “The Complete Works of Algernon”. It’s great. Indeed, it’s amazing.

At the time, there were two typical polyphonic writing styles, one was called “florid Algernon”, which was the new Algernon voice in Gerry. Above the Gori chant, the rhythm is freer, and it can even be sung all the time. There is also a “Disconte Olgarnon”, which differs from the “Oratorio Olgarnon” in that it has a new Olgarnon voice. It needs to be sung in unison with Gregorian chant.

Leonan’s “Algernon in full” is a chant for two voices based on the three modes: “Algernon in fancy”, “Algernon in disconcerting” and “Gregorian chant originally sung in unison”.

Let’s listen to a passage from Leonan’s “Olgarnon Magnificat.

2. Perotan

Perotin (c. 1200), Perotin was a representative of the second phase of the Notre Dame polyphony, who The Olgarnon Omnibus was revised, and further more complex polyphonic music was composed. And what is the complexity?

Perotin’s polyphony is usually in three or four parts, with the addition of voice parts to the original two. Also, during this period, “rhythmic patterns” emerged, which, in conjunction with the Leonan audio above, indicate that Leonan’s polyphony was in a state of flux. Rhythm is simple, but in Perotin’s time, six “rhythm patterns” emerged, which Perotin applied to the in polyphony. Because the rhythms and voices change, it makes the issue of voice alignment and melodic direction very complicated.

Perotin has an even better point. In his previous religious polyphonic music compositions, essentially the lowest voice part had to be Gregorian chant. While Perotin and his contemporaries were writing religious polyphony, they had some of the lowest voices in their polyphonic compositions. It began to adopt its own melodies, which made the work irrelevant to the original religious music and made it non-religious. Polyphonic music, but it is interesting to note that this non-religious polyphonic music is still used in religious ceremonies. This polyphony is called “Konduktuis”.

Let’s listen to a piece, “Praise to the Virgin Mary” by Conductus.

3. scripture song

Beginning in the second half of the 13th century, Olgarnon and Conduitus faded away, and the most popular polyphonic genre of the period was the scripture song. Scripture song is a further development of polyphonic music, how has it changed compared to the previous polyphonic music?

First, there are the lyrics. Because polyphonic music is a vocal work, vocal works involve lyrics, and polyphonic music before scripture songs usually has only the most The lower voices have sung words, the upper voices are wordless, and the scripture song, which gives the other voices all different sung words, has a different content The name “Motet” (Mot means “word” in French) also has something to do with this way of composition. The name of the song also has something to do with this creative approach.

Secondly, there is the melody. Scripture songs usually have three or four parts, with the lowest part beginning with a secular tune, which makes both religious and secular music more or less the same. The line between the two begins to blur by the scripture song.

In the later development of scripture song, a form called Franck scripture song emerged, named after the 13th century composer Franck, which differed from previous scripture songs in that it had a longer sung third part than the second part, which allowed for shorter note durations in the third part, increasing the contrast between the voices.

The development of religious music in the Middle Ages, especially polyphony, laid the foundation for the Renaissance and even the Baroque period that followed, hinting at the great achievements of Baroque polyphony.