Medieval music (III): music theory

The more noteworthy musical theories of the Middle Ages had three components.

I. Church Tone
It was mentioned earlier that in the ancient Greek period, there were seven tonal scales: dolorous, Phrygian, lydian, mixed Lydia, para-Doria, para-Phrygia, para-Lydia. And in the medieval church tonal scales, there were eight. Although the names of these eight scales followed the ancient Greek period, the arrangement of the scales was changed. The specific eight tonal scales are in the four basic tones of Doria, Frigia, Lydia, and Mixed Lydia, plus their respective variations Form Composition. respectively Doria, Paradoria, Frigia, Paradigia, Lydia, Paradigia, Mixed Lydia, Para-Mixed Lydia Bottomia. (If you can’t remember, just assume this paragraph isn’t there.)

II. notation.
The earliest currently available sheet music on medieval music is the chant manuscript that appeared in the 9th century, where the sheet music for the notation spectrum, also known as the “Num spectrum”. The development of the Numu genealogy in the Middle Ages went through four stages.

Stage 1. It is to mark the outline of the approximate melody by marking the top of the lyrics with dots, horizontal lines, slashes, and other symbols, as follows.


Stage 2. It is the addition of one or two horizontal lines to the Newham score to indicate some relative pitch, as follows.

Stage Three. It is the addition of a couple of lines to the original Newham score that had one or two lines, which became four lines, thus making the pitch markings clearer as follows.

Stage 4. The four-line Newm can already mark the pitches almost clearly, but not yet the rhythms. In the 13th century, Franco (the same Franco who wrote Franco’s scripture songs), in his book “The Art of Measured Songs, A new system of note durations is proposed. Briefly, based on the four-line Newmus spectrum, the original notes are added with various lengths of vertical lines, or the The black dots on the notes of the Newham score get bigger, wider, more square, etc. to express the different time values. (Unfortunately, the sheet music didn’t have a picture, so we’ll make it up when we find one. (We can brainstorm.)

The music theory of Guido
In the 11th century, there was a music theorist named Guido d’Arezzo (c. 1025), who A set of choral names was invented to sing the notes of the then current Newham score to help the choir distinguish and remember whole notes when singing chants and semitone position, he wrote a hymn at the time called “Thy Faithful Ones,” and the first six syllables of the first six lines of this hymn were : ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, which he used to name the six syllables of the hexatonic scale of the time. Later, musicians changed ut to do and added a si after la, resulting in the most familiar modern The scale (do re mi fa sol la si) has been sung.

The current narrative focuses on musical content from the 13th century and earlier, with the 14th century to be included as a separate section Go and speak. Then one should ask why the 14th century is being addressed separately, but here is a brief explanation.

In the Middle Ages, there was a more detailed historical phase, namely, the “Ancient Period” and the “Art Nouveau Period”. The “Archaic period” refers in particular to the period from the twelfth to the thirteenth centuries, when religious music was more mature, while the “Art Nouveau period” refers to the period from the twelfth to the thirteenth centuries, when religious music was more mature. “represents the new musical trends of the Middle Ages. The “Art Nouveau period” refers mainly to the 14th century, and its stylistic features are particularly prominent in French and Italian music. .

Therefore, the 14th century needs to be addressed differently from the music that preceded it. In our next article, we will focus on the French and Italian music of the “Art Nouveau” period of the Middle Ages of the 14th century.

The basics of classical music

I. What exactly is classical music?

The term “classical music” was first used in the early 19th century, when it was primarily Used to summarize the period from the Baroque to Classicism (c. 1750-1827), with Bach, Haydn, Mozart, the Beethoven and other representatives of the music composed. But as it has been widely used, the period it refers to has been expanded, and the broadest definition can even cover the entire West. Music.

The definition of “classical music” in both the Oxford English Dictionary and the Longman Dictionary mentions the word “serious”. “, a word that is translated as “serious” in some materials, but a more reasonable translation is “thought-provoking.” This is the most important quality that distinguishes classical music from other music.

In order to give the reader a more complete picture of Western music, this column will cover music from the ancient Greek period to the 20th century.

II. The historical period of classical music

In the long historical development of Western music, there is necessarily a problem of dividing historical periods. According to the general consensus of current scholarship, the history of Western music as a whole can be divided into the following period stages.

(i) Ancient Greek and Roman periods (8th-5th centuries B.C.)

(ii) Middle Ages (5th – 15th centuries)

(iii) Renaissance (15th-16th centuries)

(iv) Baroque period (17th century – first half of the 18th century)

(v) Classical period (18th – early 19th centuries)

(vi) The Romantic period (19th century – early 20th century)

(vii) 20th Century Music (20th Century)

The above historical phases are divided according to the musical styles, compositional techniques, creative thinking and other elements of different periods, because the artistic phases are different from history and dynasties and are not clear-cut, so there are overlapping situations, but the overall division is still relatively clear.

This column also focuses on the historical background, musical style, composers, and representative works of each historical phase according to this historical phasing. The presentation will be made in the context of different topics. Some of the more representative composers, musical works and genres will be systematically explained in relation to different topics.

Introduction to Classical Music – Classical Music is All Around Us

Nietzsche: Without music, life is a mistake, a misery, an exile.

Santayana: Music will not make you rich, but it will make you happy. He will not save your soul, but it will make it worth saving.

Talking about classical music, especially the word “classical”, often gives people a stereotypical and difficult impression. Hopeless. Indeed, classical music has a very strict and precise musical form, rich in meaning and spirit, and without a knowledge of music theory as a foundation , listened to it once or twice, felt like listening to a book of heaven, especially a large work of long duration, couldn’t figure out what was going on, listened to it and made myself I was very irritated. (I just started listening to classical music.) So I stayed away from classical music, thinking that it was all in the “old paper pile”. Something that’s still far from the modern world.

I am often asked how I should get started with classical music. How should classical music sound? Usually my advice is to start with the classical music that is within reach and familiar to you.

For example, the well-known “Wedding March”, from Wagner’s opera “Lohengrin”, you can search the Internet for the four choral versions of this music, you will find that the wedding march, in addition to the fervor and solemnity that we have usually heard in the pure music version, there is a sense of calm and sacred, this variety of feelings mixed together, really like what we feel when we attend a wedding.

I once saw a commercial, in which there is not a single line of advertising, the background music to guide the commercial, the real ad picture to match. Very good, there’s ballet, that’s light; there’s cat, that’s keen; there’s dove, that’s sturdy; there’s book, that’s strength; there’s coffee, that’s… It’s the rhyme; there’s the kids, it’s the peace; that commercial soundtrack ties it all together and gives the real ad a sense of power and Awe-inspiring. Exactly! The music is called The Mighty March (No. 1), and was written by the famous English composer Elgar (1857-1934) )’s masterpiece of legacy. By using this atmospheric music to drive what the ad is trying to say, our inner feelings are undoubtedly elevated to a higher level in the In the UK, this music is also known as the “second national anthem”.

If you are careful, you may also find that the subway nowadays also plays some well-known piano music. The film has a love affair with classical music and is famous for its musical passages. The film’s use of classical music is even more beloved, and Daichi is famous for its musical passages, and if Starr had directed “The Mermaid, It’s the use of Sarasate’s famous “Vagabond Song” (you’ve heard of it, don’t believe me), “The King’s Speech It’s even a classic case of classical music passages being quoted in classic movies (oh, am I being tongue-in-cheek?…).

From my own experience of listening to music, one way to get close to classical music is to find the “resonance” first. This sense of resonance, in fact, is to let your familiarity with the classical melody extend to the entire piece of music, and gradually become interested in other passages.

An analogy can be made with reading. For example, when reading the article “a single spark can start a prairie fire”, when you see “it is standing in the sea in the coast demon king already visible mast tip It is a ship standing on the summit of a high mountain and looking to the east has seen a round of radiant sunrise, it is restless in the mother’s belly. When I read the paragraph “a baby on the verge of maturity”, it dawned on me: Oh, so these famous words came from this article. Immediately, I felt a special affinity with this article, and when I read the preceding words, I felt a different sense of receiving the information by myself. It’s also a lot more sensitive.

The same goes for classic melodies. It’s generally widely sung, catchy, and easy to remember, and everyone can probably hum a bit of it, like above As much as the Wedding March and the Awesome March are mentioned, there are actually many more, such as “Blue Danube”, The Turkish March (the one played at the opening of the sports day), Ode to Joy, and so on. Hearing a classic melody is like seeing a classic text, by repeatedly smacking the middle of the flavor, and when you are familiar with it, you follow the picture. Go find the whole work and listen to it. This way, you will gradually get close to and accept the whole work, and then you will gradually understand the real work. Over time, you will gain an understanding of the different styles of different composers, the connections between different repertoires, and the types of music from different historical periods. A more intuitive feel.

Embrace classical music! Start by listening to the classical music around you!

Simple music theory for beginners with zero knowledge

The note and its two forms of expression

First, let’s start with the basics, namely the seven basic notes 1234567, also transliterated as do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, xi, which everyone knows (though if this is not known then I can’t do anything about it).

In fact, this is only one of the expressions of the note, which we call chanting, which is a more verbal form, used mostly for singing, but there is another form of expression of the note: chanting.

The sound names are derived from the letters of the alphabet, and there are also seven, for CDEFGAB, corresponding to 1234567. here is a very The interesting phenomenon is that AB, which should have been in the top two, has instead been relegated to the bottom of the chandelier.

The reason is simple: this music theory comes from the West, and the study of Western music theory is dominated by minor keys (i.e. (6712345), Westerners then adopted the first seven of the twenty-six English letters corresponding to the minor key, so ABCDEFG The theory was then transferred to China, where the Chinese people’s thinking was more suited to a major key, and here we are today. .

Sound names and choral names are two sides of the same coin, sound names are more written, choral names are more spoken, and they are also an important bridge between the thinking of the first key and the thinking of the fixed key (this will be discussed later when we explain the key).

In fact, this is just a form of expression, and there is no need to stick to sequences or rules.

The physical properties of sound

There are four physical properties of sound: pitch, volume, time, and timbre.

1, pitch, that is, the height of the sound, the physical performance mainly lies in the number of vibrations per second, in hertz (Hz), such as 440Hz is the meaning of 440 times per second vibration (the physical acoustics involved here in the back of electronic music production also help Oh)!

Many people are confused about the difference between pitch and volume. To put it simply, you press a note A heavily in the lower register of the piano, and gently press a second note B in the upper register of the piano. Large, but the pitch is B high, this point to focus on the distinction.

2, volume, that is, the loudness of the sound. Physical performance mainly lies in the size of the vibration amplitude, in decibels. For example, the sound of the car horn is a high-decibel sound, and the sound of the paper falling to the ground in the dead of night is very light.

3, time, i.e. the length of the sound, which is well understood, 1 second sound and 3 seconds sound, the time is not the same.

4, Tone, which is still well understood, simply put, men and women sound different, pianos and guitars sound different. Cars and alarms don’t sound the same. Everything in the world has its own unique sound.

Music and noise in music

In music theory, it refers to those sounds that have a “fixed vibrational frequency,” meaning a pitch that vibrates at the same frequency every second.

For example, if you press any key on a piano 10,000 times, it will always have the same pitch, no matter how long it takes. This is a musical note, with a fixed frequency.

The opposite concept is “noise”, which is defined in music theory, not in life. (a) The concept of “noise”. It refers to sounds that do not have a fixed frequency of vibration.

Noises that are common in music, such as percussion, like jazz drums, they strike a part of the music, but compared to instruments like pianos and guitars, you will find that they don’t have a precise pitch, and this, is noise.

Noise is an essential part of the music.

This article is purely on the spur of the moment, but I also hope to try to provide some reference for ordinary music lovers, and I also hope that the senior teachers can not stint to give advice if there are any errors in the article, please correct me, thank you.