Ancient Greek and Roman music

The origins of Western music can be traced back to the ancient Greek period. Between 3500 B.C. and 2000 B.C., the “four great civilizations” of mankind emerged on Earth. One of them, the ancient Greek civilization in the Mediterranean, was the beginning of the Western European civilization, which emerged with the rise of the southern tip of Greece in 2000 BC. Crete.

By the time ancient Greek civilization developed around 800 B.C., the primitive clan society was disintegrating, and a number of Greek areas began to be established One of the city-states of slavery was very important, and this city-state was – Athens. In the 5th century B.C., the ancient Greek civilization, centered in Athens, developed a culture of philosophy, theater, music, architecture, and sculpture to the point where to a very high degree, and the now familiar Pythagoras, Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle were all at this time The characters.

(i) Musical Instruments and Musical Works of Ancient Greece

The earliest known European music is that of ancient Greece, and according to some sources it is known that the musical centers in Europe were It used to be in ancient Greece. The ancient Greeks believed that music was created by the “gods”, so their musical activities were usually associated with some religious rituals.

1.Musical Instruments

There were two common musical instruments used in ancient Greece: the lyre and the aulos.

The lyre was a plucked stringed instrument and was a relatively simple instrument that could be played by amateurs.

Based on the lyre, the kithara, a larger instrument than the lyre, was developed and used primarily for accompaniment and solos, an instrument that required a professional player, and it was often used in ceremonial pilgrimages to the sun god Apollo, as well as to accompany the vocal music of the time.

The afros is a wind instrument, often played with two pipes in hand at the same time, and was used primarily in rituals to worship Dionysus, the god of wine, but was also commonly used as an accompaniment to plays of the time.

2. Musical works

Because ancient Greek civilization is so far back in time, only 40 pieces and fragments of ancient Greek music have been discovered. Some of the more representative ones are: the Epitaph of Psykylos, two hymns from the temple of Apollo, three Mesomae on Crete Des’s hymn. And so on. What was the music like then? Modern scholars have restored the music of the Muse Hymn of Mesomedes from documentary sources, and we can listen to it (because we know) You can’t upload audio, unfortunately there are few links on the early music networks, so the audio can only be inserted as an attachment and opened. It will be a bit tricky, but good to listen to. (More links will be used in future Baroque articles for easy listening and reading.

Lyrics to the effect: Sing to me, dear Muse, sing to me, the cool, mighty wind that blows through the woods, opens my heart and awakens my soul.

Through the music of the Muse Hymn of Mesomedes, some basic characteristics of ancient Greek music can be seen: monophonic, music and poetry rhythm in unison, music in which instruments will have some ornamental playing.

(ii) Music Theory of Ancient Greece

Ancient Greek music theory had three main elements in comparison.

1. the founder of ancient Greek music theory, Pythagoras (c. 580-500 BC), argued that. “Everything is number”, he believed that music is determined by numbers and insisted, according to mathematical principles, that the octave, fifth and fourth intervals are Most concordant.

2. Aristocenus (c. 330 BC) and Cleonides ( Cleonides (c. 200 A.D.) considered the “tetrachord” to be the musical system of the Foundation. Based on the four-note scale, seven scales can be arranged: Dorian, Phrygian ( Phrygian), Lydian, Mixolydian, Paratypical Doria (Hypodorian), Hypophrygian, and Lydia (Deputy). Hypolydian), the music is named after the place names of the time, and the names of these scales have survived to this day.

Plato and Aristotle, believed that: music can influence the character, thoughts and behavior of people. Aristotle even believed that music could educate and influence people’s moral character.

Ancient Roman music
After the Roman conquest of Greece, Rome essentially inherited the music of ancient Greece, but also developed it in some ways. For example: in ancient Rome, music became more active in more private

creational and educational settings; the Afropos pipe emerged as an A variant, called Tibia. Tibia was commonly used in Roman religious ceremonies, military bands and theatres.

One important thing that happened at the end of ancient Rome was the rise of Christianity in the Mediterranean region and in the Roman Empire, especially in the 313th The Edict of Milan, recognizing its legitimacy, became stronger, which led to the gradual development of music for the Christian liturgy. As the church replaced the political power of the Roman Empire, it became the main force influencing the development of music.

Early Christian music was characterized by several features.

First, that the Christian Church retains the musical character of ancient Greece and Rome, but at the same time rejects the entertainment role of music and advocates that it serve religion.

Secondly, that the Christian Church would have many ceremonies and rituals, and that at particular ceremonies and rituals there would be particular music.

Thirdly, as Christianity spread throughout Europe, different ritual traditions were formed, which led to the creation of different kinds of ritual music, the most representative of which include the French “censer chant”, the Spanish “Mozarabic chant”, the Milan “Ambrosian chant”, etc. The influence of Christianity on music only began in ancient Rome.

The influence of Christianity on music was only the beginning in ancient Rome. In the thousands of years that followed, European music has always been closely related to religion. How it developed and evolved is described in detail in the following article.

The History of Western Music in My Eyes [IV. Renaissance]

In this chapter we begin our account of Western music during the Renaissance, which, after a long Middle Ages, finally came to fruition during the Renaissance.

The Renaissance, an intellectual and cultural movement in Europe from the 14th to 16th centuries, had a profoundly The historical background of the history of music mainly reflects the political aspirations and demands of the emerging European bourgeoisie of the time. Music presents many new features in this historical context, and a discussion of music history is of course inseparable from a particular historical context.

First, the Renaissance, the collision of old and new
The Renaissance really took effect on music in a period of about 150 years, from 1453 to 1600, which in itself is short compared to the 1000 years of the Middle Ages, but during this period there was an important event that must be mentioned: the Reformation, and an important background: the rise of the bourgeoisie and science.

1. the Reformation

As mentioned earlier, medieval Europe was a feudal society, and Christianity survived the fall of the Western Roman Empire, while the Eastern Roman Empire still existed, and it was here that Christianity was first divided, with Christianity in Europe called Catholicism and Christianity in the Eastern Roman Empire (i.e., the Byzantine Empire) called Orthodox Christianity.

In the Middle Ages Catholicism controlled the spiritual life of Europeans, the Pope and the Emperor supported each other, and Catholicism experienced a thousand years of power. It had already become corrupt. This trait was most evident in 1517, when the Roman Catholic Church began its blatant sale of “indulgences”, and in the same year. Father Martin Luther published the 95 Theses and debated the Pope, a debate that led to the subsequent Reformation, Protestantism And thus was born.

Catholicism believes that you are born sinful, and that the vouchers of redemption, where you buy your sins on earth to save you from future suffering in hell, the more you buy, the more your sins are remitted, and the blatant move out of God to ring up money and amass wealth; Martin Luther opened a discussion on this, represented by the Syllabus of 95 Articles, questioning Catholicism and the Pope, leading to a break between Roman Catholicism and Martin Luther, who burned the Pope’s excommunication in public and established another Protestant religion.

This was the general course of the Reformation and the second separation of Christianity in history, and the beginning of the confrontation between Catholicism and Protestantism.

2. the rise of the bourgeoisie and science

The biggest difference between the Renaissance and the Middle Ages was that people were less concerned with worshiping God and more concerned with themselves. Change actually has deep historical roots. It includes geography, demographics, history, and so on. This is also a very important perspective of materialistic history.

The origins of European civilization lie in ancient Greece, where the small size of the land made it impractical to develop agriculture, and self-produced industry was impossible.

Interestingly, this is in stark contrast to China. In contrast to ancient Greece, geographically, China’s vast land mass and vastness of land was very suitable for the development of agriculture, bearing in mind that feudal society was essentially It was a society of exploiters and exploited peasantry, where the peasants were safe and the merchants were slippery, and therefore the feudal rulers disliked it the most. The merchants, from which the ancient Chinese ranking of “scholar, peasant, agricultural, commercial and industrial” is derived, because the last two represent the higher productivity and relations of production, and their development was bound to overthrow the landowning class. In China, the vastness of the land and the strong agrarian culture made the social and production relations of feudal society as solid as the Chinese The traditional spiritual core is more inclined to be peaceful than pioneering, a trait that is more pronounced inland and better in coastal areas. This is the most obvious manifestation of the influence of geography on people.

And Europe happens to occupy many favorable conditions: first, geographical conditions: although the continent is also very large, but the origin of the cultural core of the European people It was Ancient Greece, and the ancestors of Europeans were predominantly Germanic, and both peoples were predominantly maritime cultures from the earliest times; II. History Reality: feudalism in Europe never reached its peak, was held back by many forces (such as Catholicism), and was difficult to truly unify. Most of the time small and fragmented countries; iii. economic base: Europe had a well-developed business and trade industry from an early stage, which was well established, in particular The Crusades brought in many new elements, and Europeans broadened their horizons; iv. the Renaissance was based on several of the above conditions. The full explosion, especially in the later geographic discoveries (the great seafaring era, the opening of new shipping routes), and the Europeans began to fully open up the veins of the Yamato that laid the framework for the modern era.

Against this background, the European bourgeoisie emerged, feudalism was relatively weak, and the new class forces were bound to put forward their economic and political demands; science began to sprout, the classic example being Copernicus’ “heliocentric theory” against the Catholic “geocentric theory”.

The music of the West shared the fate of the times and took on many new qualities.

II. Music of the Renaissance
In the late Middle Ages, polyphonic music was sufficiently developed to enter the Renaissance after the Notre Dame school of music had gathered its strength. However, instrumental music was still not more fully developed at this time, so the Renaissance was the peak of the development of polyphonic vocal music, and I still The three perspectives of polyphonic, religious and secular music are approached.

The polyphonic weaving and the dominant weaving are two different weaves which are both different and related. The polyphonic weaving focuses on the equality between the voices, each voice has the power to express themes and emotions; while the dominant weaving in the baroque music, the polyphonic weaving in the baroque music. The period is only beginning to sprout, and only reached flourishing during the Classical period, with a primary and secondary distinction between the voices, and a clear contrast between harmony and melody.

An easy way to tell the difference is to listen to the polyphonic loom, you will feel as if every part is singing a melody, not so with the dominant loom, you can clearly hear the difference between melody and harmony, and the melody is dominant, the pop music we are currently listening to is the dominant loom.

Let’s get to the point.

1: Polyphonic music is a big development

The previous work describes the trajectory of polyphonic music in the medieval period, from the earliest Olgarnon to Conductus to canon and scripture song, the polyphonic approach became more and more numerous, and the vocal parts grew from two to three and four at first.

In spite of the Reformation, the awakening of humanity, and a number of other events and new trends, the Catholic Church was still a powerful force, and the main field of development of polyphonic vocal music was still in religious music.

In the course of a century or two, the Renaissance produced four main schools of music: Burgundian, Flemish, Roman and Venetian.

① Burgundy School: early Renaissance, in northern France, Belgium and The border area of the Netherlands (historically this area was called the Netherland) gave birth to the Burgundian School (also known as Netherland’s First School). This school of music was early to use three-part polyphony for composition. The composers represented were Dufy and Benshuwa.

The golden age of the Burgundian school of music, from about 1400 to 1450, was the junction between the two eras of Art Nouveau and the Renaissance, and it contributed fine three-part polyphonic vocal music, establishing the regular five-part writing form of the Mass on the basis of Marceau, as well as French secular polyphonic music, Chanson (to be mentioned later), which laid a solid foundation for the Flemish school of music and four-part polyphonic vocal music of the Renaissance.

The Flemish School (Flemmich School): At the height of the Renaissance, the Flemish School (also known as the Second and Third Niederland School) was born in the Niederland region, and it was the most important school of music during the entire Renaissance.

This school of music went through three generations and summarized the following main contributions.

Emphasis on the equal status of all voices, all having the function and power to present a theme.
Begins to value harmonic fullness, simple harmonic structures emerge (three chords appear intact for the first time)
Began to apply regular and variable frame terminations, with the first signs of functional harmony.
The Flemish school went through three generations, each represented by a composer.

Johannes Ockeghem (1410-1497), the first representative composer, was deeply influenced by Burgundian music, with a wide melodic range and rich acoustics, and was highly accomplished in imitating polyphony.

Josquin des Prez (1450-1521), one of the greatest composers of the Renaissance, was a master of polyphony, along with Michelangelo, and was rumored to have been a student of Ockeghem.

The third representative composer, Orlando Di Lasso (1532-1594), a Flemish musician who explored functional harmony and established the T-D, D-T functional harmony circle.

It is very important to note that in this passage of mercy Kyrie uses the technique of imitating polyphony, in which the four voices can be heard in sequence with the same The melodic range of the melody enters, resulting in a very full-bodied soundscape that is well worth listening to (with headphones!)

③ Roman School: Roman School was formed a little later than Flemish School, when Rome was the center of Catholicism and the religious power was strong.

The Roman School was represented by the composer G. P da Palestrina (c. 1525~ (1594), Palestrina developed the polyphony of the Flemish school to its zenith, the most famous being Pope Marchelos’ The Mass is written for six voices. His style of music is calm, simple and pure, and is representative of the Romanesque style.

Post a snippet of Palestrina’s Hodie Christus Natus Est.

The Venetian School was formed in the second half of the 15th century by A. Willaerte, a composer from Flanders, with an early, distinctly Flemish style, and in the 16th century, Giovanni Gabrieli (G. Gabrieli, 1557-1612) had an important influence on its development.

This school differs from the first three in that the Venetian composers employed a number of instruments as accompaniments, especially G. Gabrieli , he explores the possibilities of many instrumental combinations and attempts to enhance the contrast between vocal parts and instrumental groups. In the magnificent St Mark’s Cathedral, these composers explored the imposing, echoing polyphonic chant, a new Unlike the first three schools of music, the polyphonic voice, which later reached Germany, became the precursor to the great concertos of the Baroque era.

It can be said that the first three schools of music developed polyphonic vocal music to its peak, while the Venetian school built on its predecessors and began to explore instrumental music The possibility of polyphony, and indeed by the end of the Renaissance, had developed Canzona, Lichekal ( The earliest polyphonic instrumental genres, such as Ricercare, were developed in the Baroque era. It also laid a solid foundation for the great development of instrumental music in the Baroque era.

Giovanni Gabrieli, an excellent organist and a gifted musician with a keen sense of instrumental music, studied organ playing with his uncle Andrea Gabrieli and went to Munich to work as court musician.

Aware of the space offered by St. Mark’s Basilica, he grouped instrumental music together and experimented with different combinations, and is considered the “father of orchestration”, most notably the Sacrae Symphoniae of 1597.

2. religious music, new variations on chant.

After the Reformation, Protestantism took Europe by storm, and a group of believers and composers, represented by Martin Luther, attempted a new interpretation of the original of Catholic music (especially Gregorian chant) undergoes a transformation. In this transformation, chant exhibits many characteristics in different countries, but at the core two are the same: one is the use of one’s own The chant is sung in the native language instead of Latin; the melody is reworked and used in combination with the original melody.

The resulting new chants were called chorale in Germany, psalter in France and Switzerland, and anthem and service in England.

These musical reforms were spiritually and culturally consistent with the principles of the Protestant Reformation, contributed greatly to the spread of Protestantism in Europe, and, most importantly, were close to the masses, making Protestant music a more homogeneous experience for believers.

3. secular music of the renaissance.

In the Middle Ages, each country had its own minstrels, but by the end of the Renaissance, each country had developed its own national vocal genre, the most important being the Italian madrigal and the French chanson.

The most important are the Italian madrigal and the French chanson, which was born in about 1530, in the second half of the 16th century. into its prime. Early pastoral music was a polyphonic (usually in 3 to 4 parts) choral polyphony, first intended for the educated population composed (Jesuardo himself was an aristocrat), its lyrics are highly literary and tuneful, and its subjects are mostly glorifying love or The love of nature.

In the second half of the 16th century, pastoral music gradually developed into five to six voices, and the subject matter was gradually enriched, for example, with such an orientation as satirical allegory. Most importantly, at this time, pastoral music had gradually developed in the direction of the main-tonal weaving, and it can be said that secular vocal music was ahead in this area. Religious Vocal Music.

The three main representative composers of pastoral music are Luca-Marenzio (1553-1599), Carlo-Gesualdo (1561-1613), Claudio-Monteverdi (1567-1643)

Luca Marenzio: The eldest of the trio and one of the representatives of pastoral music in its prime, Marenzio’s polyphonic compositions are so exquisite and so well suited to pastoral music that he has even been described as “the Schubert of pastoral music”.
Carlo Gesuardo: outstanding late Renaissance pastoral composer, lutenist. His early life was miserable, especially when his wife cuckolded him and he killed her and her adulterer. A niece, Leonora, became Prince of Venosa in 1586. Probably influenced by the infidelity of his first wife, his style in music showed many qualities, often love and death and so on Title.
Claudio Monteverdi: the most accomplished of the Three Jerks, a composer between the late Renaissance and early Baroque. In his early studies of pastoral, polyphonic music, in 1607, on the basis of pastoral music, he composed the first truly historical Opera: “Orfeo,” which officially opens the era of Baroque opera.

② Chanson: France was the first place where troubadours appeared in the Middle Ages, and has developed over the centuries. France has developed its own unique genre of national secular polyphonic vocal music: the chanson.

Chanson is not particularly important compared to pastoral music, after all, the predecessor of opera was mainly pastoral, and opera is still very important in the history of music. The significance of the. However, Chanson itself has a light and beautiful melody, fresh and strong rhythms, and is itself a very fine genre of vocal polyphony. Like pastoral music, it is about love and the love of nature and was very popular in France at the time.

Its representative composers were C. Janequin (1485-1558) and N. Gombert (unknown date of birth and death).

It’s worth noting that Shanson is a vocal genre, and this version was reset with Renaissance instrumental music (forgive me if I can’t find the vocal version).

Third, the influence of Renaissance music on later generations
I prefer to think of the Renaissance as a transitional period, just as the “Art Nouveau” period was a transition between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, which was more of a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Baroque period.

In this period, polyphonic vocal music reached unprecedented heights and gave birth to the most important music of the Baroque era. Vocal genre – opera. Although not prominent in polyphonic instrumental music, some preliminary explorations were made (recounted in the subsequent Baroque era).

It can be argued that the Renaissance had a number of important influences on the music of later generations, summarized in three main points.

The development of polyphonic compositional techniques to their peak and their fruitfulness in vocal music, as well as initial explorations in instrumental music, set the stage for the simultaneous explosion of polyphonic vocal and instrumental music in the Baroque era.
Many genres of religious music were standardized during the Renaissance, and most of the later generation’s religious music compositions were based on the Renaissance.
The Venetian school was the first orchestration, the Flemish school was the first functional harmony, and the polyphony became more sophisticated, so if medieval musicians standardized notation, the Renaissance was the first to explore compositional theory.
The Renaissance, as an era of continuity, held the key to the Baroque era.

The first golden age in the history of Western music, the Baroque era, was about to arrive.

The History of Western Music as I See It [III, Medieval]

In the Middle Ages, these instruments could not be found in churches, as religious music was about reverence and solemnity, and the only instrument allowed to be used was the organ, which is often featured in secular music in these videos.

After all, the era is so old, plus the notation is incomplete, medieval music is basically a late reset, so you can only try to get as close to that feeling of the time as possible, and the audio and video sources can be quite mixed, begging for forgiveness.

During the latter part of the Roman Empire, the Germans in the north of Europe continued to invade and harass the Western Roman Empire, which fell in 476 AD. . Because of the existence of various branches of the Germanic peoples (Franks, Goths, Angles, etc.), it was not until the Germans destroyed the West that the Germans were able to destroy the West. After the Roman Empire, they each established their own regimes, large and small, and Europe entered the Medieval period.

In addition, Christianity, founded in the first century A.D., was able to continue to grow after the fall of the Western Roman Empire and during the Middle Ages became a The spiritual ruler of the whole of Europe, and therefore religious music was the most important component of medieval music. At the same time, secular music took a different path from religious music, mainly in terms of modulation, instrumentation, lyrics and even the use of place. etc.

State regimes, large and small, controlled the politics of Europe, and Christianity controlled the spirit of Europe, and these two forces colluded with each other to Given support, Europe grew slowly throughout the Middle Ages in a long period of darkness. Under the circumstances, many Europeans found spiritual solace through Christianity, and the popularity and dominance of Christianity in Europe reached summit. The Pope and the Emperor report to each other, and the Emperor’s succession would be more convincingly recognized by the Pope’s coronation; the Pope borrowed the Emperor’s Political power gets more entitlements, and the Vatican in Europe today is the same Vatican that Pippin dedicated to the Pope. So it is said: the Pope crowned the Emperor and the Emperor fed the Pope.

One, the Middle Ages, a time of darkness and light.
This section, like its predecessor, aims to quickly clarify the general historical context of the first millennium of the Middle Ages and several historical events as quickly as possible, to facilitate the historical background for the rest of music history.

1. the great conflagration and the fragmentation of a multinational regime

Since the fall of the Western Roman Empire to the Germans, the various branches of the Germanic nation began to separate themselves, carving out territories to form kingdoms and Attacking each other, the era of the Great Scuffle thus began. There are no particularly important historical events of this era, the main, more powerful ones being the Franks and the Angles, because of the They laid the basic pattern of Europe.

During this period, Christianity was preserved, and the invading Germans treated Christianity much more politely than when they packed up the Romans, after all, they belonged to the invasion of outsiders and needed a moral and spiritual high ground, obviously, Christianity became a good breakthrough.

2. unification again, the Caroline dynasty

During the first period mentioned above, the Franks, a branch of the Germanic peoples, established the Merovingian dynasty[1], the first dynasty of the Frankish kingdom.

The politics of the Merovingian dynasty was really not clean (the medieval kingdoms were basically the same), and in the struggle for power, the dynasty Power was gradually transferred to the family of Pippei, the palace prime minister. In the third generation (known as “Pi-Ping III”[2] or “Shorty Pi-Ping”), Pi-Ping finally seized the throne in 751. Pope St. Zacharias sent an archbishop to Paris to crown Pepin, which was the beginning of the “divine right of kings” in Europe and the end of the Merovingian Dynasty, founding of the Caroline Dynasty[3]. In 754 A.D., Pepin granted a piece of land to the Pope for the establishment of a “Papal States”, which is now the Vatican[4]. This was the forerunner of the famous “dedication of the soil by Pippin”.

After the death of Pippin, his son Charlemagne[5] succeeded his father on the throne and became the second Carolingian monarch. European history has an extremely important influence, the status is equal to the Chinese history of the Qin Emperor and the Han Wu, poker in the king of hearts is his (poker). (Yes, I can’t afford it!)

Charlemagne further reinforced the tradition of divine right of kingship, which until Pepin had been a fragmented chant in various parts of Christendom, such as Ambrose Chant in Milan, Mozarabic Chant in Spain and Portugal, Celtic Chant in Ireland and Scotland. etc. Pippin forced the introduction of the Roman liturgy and chant during his reign, and his son, Charlemagne, furthered this and eventually contributed to the A hybrid with a Roman chant as the mainstay: the Gregorian chant. The story of this process is known as the Gallic Renaissance.

Charlemagne’s conquests made the Frankish dynasty so powerful that he became known as “the father of Europe”. In 814, this legendary emperor died of a cold.

At the same time, in the British Isles, the Angles and Saxons, another branch of the Germanic peoples, established seven kingdoms, known as the “Age of Seven Kingdoms,” which marked a new era in European history.

3. Re-disintegration and the basic structure of Europe was established.

According to the Germanic tradition, when an elder dies, the inheritance is divided equally among the younger generations. After the death of Charlemagne, his three grandsons divided the territory of the Caroline dynasty, which was divided into three kingdoms: the West Frankish kingdom (today’s (predecessor and prototype of France), Middle Frankish Kingdom (predecessor and prototype of present-day Italy), East Frankish Kingdom (predecessor and prototype of present-day Germany) .

At almost the same time, the Kingdom of Wessex, far away in the British Isles, annexed the remaining six kingdoms, and the Kingdom of England was born. (Compare this to the Warring States period in China, which is amazingly similar.)

Since then, the pattern of Europe was basically established, the medieval warfare also began to be relatively less, the whole of Europe entered a period of relative stability, the economy gradually had a recovery, the population also began to grow.

4, the waves rise again, the Holy Roman Empire, the Crusades, the dawn of modernity

After the division of the Frankish dynasty into three, Europe had a good time, but it didn’t last long. In 911 AD, the Caroline dynasty of the Eastern Franks died out, and the Otto family took over the power, Otto the Great thought he was so powerful that he was as powerful as the historical Roman Empire, so he changed the name of the Eastern Franks to the “Roman Empire”, and his successors added the word “divine”.

In 1152 A.D., Frederick I[6] was elected king of the Eastern Franks, the second monarch of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. The Holy Roman Empire reached its medieval peak in his hands. His fame is of great importance throughout European history. During his lifetime, he invaded Italy six times (though he failed in all of them), and is best known for leading the Third Crusade with Richard the Lionheart. One of his most famous events was the Third Crusade, which he led with Richard the Lionheart[7].

As we have seen in Ancient Greece and Rome, the Western Roman Empire fell, but the Eastern Roman Empire survived and had Christianity in its territory. The place of pilgrimage – Jerusalem [8]. In the 7th century A.D., Islam emerged in the Arabian Peninsula, and coincidentally, its holy site was just as much Jerusalem, and the Muslims Prevailed by force and defeated the armies of the Eastern Roman Empire in 636 A.D. In 638 A.D., Islam took over the Jerusalem.

The Crusades were essentially a massive religious struggle between Christianity and Islam to recover the Holy Land, Jerusalem. From the first expedition in 1095 to the complete failure of the ninth in 1291, which lasted for 196 years and involved nine battles. The end result was a crushing defeat for the Crusaders and a significant setback to Christian influence and prestige.

Although the Crusades were a crushing defeat in historical terms, the historical event still had far-reaching consequences for Europe at the time, notably in these ways.

The Church’s prestige slipped and its control declined, preparing the way for the Renaissance and the Reformation.
Trade routes between Europe and the Middle East were opened, capitalism had better conditions for development, and the bourgeoisie began to grow.
There was a cultural and technological exchange between Europe and the Middle East, Arabic numerals, compasses, gunpowder, etc., began to arrive in Europe, and veterans of the Crusades saw things that could not be seen in their villages and brought them back to their homelands, providing material for the creative fields of Europe and laying the foundations for the Renaissance.
Generally speaking, the Crusades opened the eyes of Europeans to the world and paved the way for the whole of Europe to adjust its state and gather momentum.

II. Music of the Middle Ages
In this section of formal music history, the music of the Middle Ages presents many characteristics that can be analyzed from many angles.

1、Religious music and secular music

1) Religious music: in the Middle Ages, Catholicism[9] held absolute authority in Europe. Since the Carolingian Renaissance, Gregorian chant has become the official chant of the Church, emphasizing solemnity and dignity, and forbidding the use of musical instruments (The use of the organ is later permitted.) Gregorian chant is monophonic weave with no definite rhythmic vocal music, sung in Latin, and can be described as medieval monophonic weave The most typical representation of the music.

There are four main types of Gregorian chant: syllabic (one word to one note), chant (one note to many words), syllabic (one word to many notes), and floric (one word to many notes).

Share Gregorian Chant (source: Himalayan Tease Radio).

The most important rite for the use of the chant is the Mass, which is translated from the Latin word misa, meaning “gathering”, and is divided into two categories: the daily Mass and the liturgical Mass.

There are five sets of regular Masses, including.

Sutra of Compassion (Kyrie)
Gloria (Gloria)
The Lamb’s Bible (Aguns Dei)
As time went on, ecclesiastical music developed into a polyphonic fabric, and in the 9th century the first polyphonic music was born: Organum, which developed into several forms, giving birth to the first “imitation polyphony”, the now familiar Canon, which, of course, was to come later and will be discussed in detail in the polyphonic music section.

They were both musicians and poets, and wrote in the ancient Provencal dialect (as opposed to the Latin of church chant), mostly about love and occasionally criticizing the times.

Under their influence, another group of troubadours, Trouvere, appeared in northern France, essentially imitating The Troubadour of southern France has not changed much. Germany, under French influence, also saw the emergence of troubadours, and the history of music calls the German medieval troubadours “oenophiles”, who were basically… It is a copy of the French troubadours.

The most noteworthy thing is that the minstrels had already developed the concept of the AAB form, in which the same melody is sung at the beginning of a song with different lyrics, which is known in music history as the “bar form”.

Unlike religious music, secular music makes extensive use of musical instruments and does not often use church tunings, but rather has both Ionian and Ionian tunings (predecessors of modern major and minor tunings).

Sharing some medieval folk music, reworked by the modern day, of course, from ancient sheet music (source: Himalayan Tease Meow Radio).

These pieces use a very wide range of instruments, such as lutes, cioppets, old trombones, etc., creating a completely different atmosphere from religious music and closer to the popular music we listen to today (this also has to do with the choice of key).

There is some historical background to be explained: the bards of the time travelled widely, often to various courts, and the theme of love is the most photographed. It is also related to courtly love. The second song was written by a troubadour to the wife of a court earl, and the countess fell in love with the troubadour. Poet. Poet’s blood, nice, poor Earl’s head is green.

The secular music section will be covered here first.

2. Monophonic and polyphonic weaves

The monophonic weave is very well understood, there is only one voice in the whole song, there are many chants even though there are multiple choruses, but the singing is still only one voices, so it remains a monophonic weaving. The focus of this section is on polyphonic music.

① The earliest polyphonic music: the Organum (Olgarnon)

In the 9th century A.D., some monks began to experiment with adding a melodic line of parallel fourths or fifths to Gregorian chant, and the first polyphonic music was born.

Gradually, over time, the Algernon took many forms.

Parallel Olgarnon: the initial form of the Olgarnon, adding a parallel fourth or fifth melody above or below the chant. to enhance the impact of the chant. The melody of the chant is called a definite melody (in the sense that a second melody is composed on the basis of this melody).
Parallel Olgarnon (free or reversed): Parallel Olgarnon because the added melody is a parallel fourth or fifth, which means that the added melody is in the same direction as the chant melody, but this variation is different, the added melody is not the same as the chant, but can be changed freely, including the opposite of the chant melody (i.e. the chant melody goes up, the added melody goes down).
The new melody corresponds to a dozen or more notes. One note of the chanting melody, and this form is growing in intensity, which leads to the following chanting melody having to be longer and longer, sometimes Singing a single note requires several people to take turns shifting their breath to hold it, so the definite melody at the bottom is thick and long, and the sung melody at the top is smooth and dynamic. It creates a sense of expansive space. (This is what makes the Gothic style so special musically.)
DISCANT: After the development of the choral oratorio, each note of the sacred chant melody was greatly lengthened and the original Latin rhythm was dismembered. In this case, the church musicians studied six ways of organizing the rhythms to re-organize the upper voices of the flower-singing Olgarnon, which It can be seen as an early prototype of counterpoint. Disconnection, as a compositional technique or style, had a profound influence on future generations.
(ii) New varieties of polyphonic music: conductus, canon, scripture song

Algernon is polyphonic music composed to the definitive melody of Gregorian chant, but it is clear that medieval music could not be only Gregorian. Goliath Chant. After the birth of Discontente, the development of polyphony entered a new phase, with the most far-reaching influences such as Conductus, Canon, and Scripture songs of three kinds.

Conductus: in the 11th-12th centuries AD, under the influence of secular bards, the church began to A new kind of polyphonic music, the Conductus, has emerged. It differs greatly from Algernon in that it no longer uses chant as its definitive melody, but instead creates its own definitive melody, and in the manner of Dieskant. to organize rhythms and weaves.
Canon: Canon can’t be called a genre, it’s more of a compositional technique, or polyphonic form. It would be more appropriate to call it “imitative polyphony”, because canons are based on continuous imitation. The first voice comes in, called the “main clause”, and the second voice comes in later with exactly the same intervallic structure as the first. In the later stages of development, the number of voices gradually increased, but the basic idea remained the same: continuous imitation.
In the late 13th century, musicians perfected the clausula, which became the scripture song.
3. Notation and music theory

This section focuses on medieval contributions to music theory and notation. The main focus is on the concept of “measure” and the birth of the “quadrille”.

During the Greco-Roman and early medieval periods, notation was very imperfect, firstly because of its inability to record pitches accurately, and secondly because of its lack of accuracy. is the inability to accurately record the duration of a tone, let alone the concept of rhythm. The focus of medieval music theory research, therefore, was to address these two issues.

1) Newm’s score, the quadrille and the guido

In the early Middle Ages, monks and church musicians also attempted to record music, resulting in the more representative early Nummer scores [11].

It can be seen that even though Newm’s score already had the concept and idea of a line score, it was difficult to record the rhythms accurately and seemed rather vague, because the concept of quantified notes did not exist at this time.

The earliest Neum scores had only one line, which gradually developed into two and three lines.In the 11th century, the most important musicians of the Middle Ages. One of the composers, Guido Arezzo [12], who developed the Num score into four lines from the original, and formed the five lines for the five lines The groundwork is laid.

His other two major achievements were the creation of the six-tone scale, with a choral name assigned to each note (essentially the forerunner of the modern first-name system), where notes were previously sung with lyrics, but starting with the Guido, notes began to have their own choral names; and the invention of the “Guido hand” to help people memorize scales and choral names, which was so efficient that, given the technology of the time, it took ten years of study to learn what the Guido hand was used to, but since its inception, the learning time has been reduced to five months, a truly pioneering invention of the Middle Ages.

Franco, Quantitative notation.

This section begins with two major problems to be solved by medieval music: pitch and duration. Guido essentially solved the first, and the second was solved by the 13th century German music theorist, Canon Franco, in his book “Quantitative proposed and attempted to be solved in The Art of Song.

In this work, for the first time, the idea of a proportional duration of the notes was proposed, divided into four forms: doubly long notes, long notes, short notes, and doubly short notes. . Interestingly, while Franco believed that trituration was the perfect way to divide notes (e.g. a long note can be divided into three short notes). However, the division between the doubled long note and the long note is dichotomous, meaning that a doubled long note can be divided into two long notes.

It is clear that this attempt succeeded in opening up an important step in the quantification of notes, and that the medieval musicians represented in Guido, Franco and others’ Thanks to the constant efforts of the musicians, the notation gradually matured and laid the most important step for the rapid development of the music that followed. After all, without notation, it would have been difficult to develop compositional theory, music research theory, etc., because only if one could first record the Figure out how to study in order to progress.

4. Late medieval, religious polyphonic music in its fullest form: the Notre Dame School.

During the medieval period, polyphony developed mainly in the milieu of religious music, and around the 12th to 13th century, the Notre Dame School was born in Notre Dame, Paris, France, a school that was the center of the development of late medieval polyphony, where it was fully developed in quantity and quality worthy of the medieval extremes.

In addition, the theory of notation, as represented by Guido and Franco, was also fully practiced here. Many rhythmic patterns were innovated, and polyphony developed to its medieval zenith.

There were two masters of this school of music, Léonan and Perrotin, who are the earliest known composers[13] and a little before Marceau.

(Sadly, Notre Dame de Paris suffered a fire and it is not known how much of it will be restored)

III. Late Middle Ages, Art Nouveau Splendor
The 150 years or so between 1300 and 1453 are what art history calls the “Art Nouveau” period, which I have singled out. It’s because it’s a time of inheritance, as a transition between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. However, the main reason I still classify him as medieval is that this phase of musical development is still primarily an inheritance and refinement of the prior The musical results, the innovations are few.

One must mention the French master and the first composer in the history of Western music whose works have survived with clarity: Guillaume de Marceau.[14]

There are three main areas of Mashaw’s work.

He composed 23 scripture songs, mostly in three parts, with French lyrics and French nursery rhymes or ballads instead of chant melodies.
Although he composed only one Mass, the Messe de Notre Dame, he wrote his first five masses as a whole: the Mass of Mercy, the Mass of Glory, the Mass of Faith, the Mass of the Holy Spirit and the Mass of the Lamb.
He often wrote some non-religious music for the nobles, that is, the “caveman” of the Middle Ages, and secular songs can even be said to be the most important field of writing for him.

From then on, Europe gradually got rid of its ignorance and numbness, and entered the Renaissance period, when music, under the call of the times, began to show many new characteristics.

Renaissance, Europe’s opening tour is about to begin.

IV Closing Thoughts.

The Middle Ages up to 1000 years, although in the ignorance and numbness in the slow development, can eventually lay the foundation for the later explosive development of Europe, Europe seems to modern development like hanging, in essence is to pay a long time cost for the price, can be said to be a perfect interpretation of the word “thick and thin”.

Europe, this group of people, absolutely have its terrible place, China is a great country, even if not afraid, also can not despise this group of people, learn from each other, common progress, China’s music and even in various fields, I believe that can be a higher level.

The History of Western Music in My Eyes [II. Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome]

When talking about ancient Greece and ancient Rome, the image in everyone’s mind is probably those bearded statues, or the philosophy of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, the science of Archimedes, etc. However, when it comes to music, many people may be blurred.

Strictly speaking, this chapter is the most difficult to write, after all, the ancient Greek and Roman music, that is basically only textual records of some fragments, not even the formation of notation, which gives me to describe the music of this period, invariably increased the difficulty, after all, the music of the Middle Ages can barely be reproduced, the music of the ancient Greek and Roman period is really only from the text of a glimpse of the charm.

I. Those people and those things in ancient Greece and ancient Rome

This phase is divided into, Ancient Greece (c. 1650 ~ 146 B.C.) and Ancient Rome (146 B.C. ~ 476) Two periods whose history can be subdivided into several epochs. This section quickly clarifies, in as brief a language as possible, some of the major historical events of the last thousand years of the history of ancient Greece and Rome. Convenient to set the stage for the rest of the story.

A particularly interesting thing to say at the outset is that while ancient Greece and Rome were the source of Western civilization, today’s Europeans, and the The people of the ancient Greek and Roman periods were largely unrelated by blood. The vast majority of Europeans today are descendants of the Germans, Slavs and Celts. These three nations were scorned by the Romans as “the three barbarians” during the time of the Roman Empire, which led to the fall of the Roman Empire. The Germans played a big role, what a turn of events, the heavens have spared no one (dog’s head)

1. Ancient Greece (c. 1650~146 B.C.)

1. the Mycenaean civilization (c. 1650~1100 B.C.): it originated at a distance from the Greek mainland. Crete, located in the Aegean Sea [1]. Therefore, some people also divide this period into two and call them the Cretan and Mycenaean civilizations. The most famous event of this period was the Trojan War [2], from which the historical allusion to the Trojan horse came, and later on The Iliad in Homer’s epic is based on this historical event.

Homer’s period (1100-800 B.C.): This period is naturally based on the famous blind Greek poet Homer’s poem “The Iliad”, which is based on the historical event of Homer. Names are given by name, and most of what is known about this period comes from the Homeric poems. The most important event of this period was the invasion of Greece by the Dorians[4] and the Greeks began to set sail for Crete. and part of it went to the Aegean Sea and the coasts of Asia Minor, which made the Aegean Sea the inland sea of Greece.

(iii) The City-State and Archaic periods (800-338 B.C.): also known as the Classical period. The chronological definition of this period has traditionally been somewhat controversial, but I argue from a materialistic point of view that this period. As Greek civilization entered the territorial limits of the Greek mainland, the mountainous and fragmented land, the city-state became the most widespread expression of power and society, and thus made the This division of time. The most famous city-states of this period are Athens, Sparta[5] and Thebes, and the most famous events are the Hippo War[6] and the Peloponnesian War [7]. After the Peloponnesian War, Greek democracy began to weaken and the Hellenistic period came.

④ Hellenistic period (336-31 B.C.): in 336 B.C., Alexander [8] inherited his father’s throne and became king of the kingdom of Macedonia. Alexander conquered the four corners of the earth and surpassed his ancestors in merit, causing many of the Greek city-states to submit. Macedonia was originally an obscure region in northern Greece, but it was the last to laugh. It is noteworthy that Alexander did not really unify Greece, but more in the flavor of an allied ally that forced Greece to The city states submitted. He eventually died young, followed by the Roman invasion in 146 B.C. and the fall of Greece.

2. ancient Rome (753 B.C. ~ 476)

① Roman Kingship (753~509 B.C.): also known as the Roman Tribal Period, this period began with the B.C. Rome was marked by the founding of the city in 753. Rome’s home at that time was on a few small dirt slopes on what is now the Italian peninsula, and Rome was still gathering strength at this time, when it was still Greek world.

② During the Roman Republic (509~27 B.C.): in 509 B.C., the Roman tribes rose to power and established a republic. The Roman Republic was founded. The most famous of this system were the consuls and the senate, which began with a term of office for the consuls and gradually evolved into a lifetime dictatorship. The consul, best known as Caesar[9], was assassinated by the Senate, although his nephew Octavian [ 10] turned back and eventually became the first head of state of the Roman Empire, and Rome entered the Roman Imperial Period.

(iii) Roman Imperial Period (27 B.C ~ 476): since Octavian became the first head of the Roman Empire, the map of Rome Rapidly expanding, it eventually became a vast empire spanning Asia and Africa and Europe, far superior to that of ancient Greece. By the time of Diocletian[11], the Roman Empire was growing weaker, and Diocletian divided Rome into the Eastern and Western Roman Empires. Two emperors ruled under each emperor, known as the “Four Emperors”, but were unable to save the Roman Empire from decline. In 325 A.D., Constantine the Great[12] briefly reunified the Roman Empire until 476 B.C., when, as mentioned above, the Roman Empire was reunited. As stated, the Western Roman Empire was invaded by the Germans to the north and it fell.

What about the Eastern Roman Empire? He lived well for another thousand years until the West entered the Renaissance and the Eastern Roman Empire fell. Different lives for the same people (dog’s head)

II. Music of Ancient Greece and Rome

Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome were essentially one and the same in music, and as for Ancient Rome, in characteristics Basically in line with Ancient Greece, the comparison differs only in the advances made in musical instruments. So this paragraph focuses on the achievements of ancient Greece in musical genre, music theory, and musical outlook (or musical ethics). There are also the instruments of ancient Greece, and ancient Rome will not be too long.

1: Ancient Greece.

① Ancient Greek musical genres: lyric, cantata and tragedy.

One of the characteristics of ancient Greek music was that the notes and the words were closely related, and that the words took precedence over the notes.

Plato, for one, argued that “rhythm and tune should be made to conform to the words, and not the words should be made to accommodate the rhythm and tune.” This of course seems rather absurd today, but it had a huge impact on the art of music at the time.

Hymns: The earliest recorded music in ancient Greece dates from the Homeric period, which historically was the period of the Great Migration of the Greek population. period, during which the territory of Greece expanded, the Aegean Sea became its inland sea, and eventually four major races were formed, with Doria as the main one . The Greeks produced a type of choral music during this period, the carol. The carol was a choral monophonic[13] weave of music (in fact all music in ancient Greece was monophonic), which was originally Hymns were only meant to glorify the sun god, and later came to refer generically to a genre of choral music that glorified God, the most famous hymns being the sun god hymn and the Ode to the God of Wine. It is worth noting that the Ode to the God of Wine was a precursor to the ancient Greek tragedies.
Lyric: During Homer’s time, the mass migration of the population led to the rapid development of commerce and industry and the accelerated disintegration of clans. This led to the gradual dissipation of the collectivist sentiments of the Greeks, which were replaced by a wealth of individual emotional experiences. Against such a background, a very unique genre was born in ancient Greece – the lyric poem. It seems to be a literary genre, but in fact it is a combination of literature and music, rich in rhythm and beautiful in style. Lyric poetry is divided into many themes, such as satire, lyre, etc. The most outstanding lyric poet recorded is Sappho [14], she is Plato praised her as “the tenth muse”, a poetess of great importance in the history of the West. Although only the text of Sappho’s poem has been handed down to us, I can still feel in its exquisite words that Sappho was playing the lyric. The kind of rhythmic beauty that plays and sings itself.
Ancient Greek tragedy: In the 6th century B.C., from the carols of the goddess of wine emerged Ancient Greek tragedy, the most important of all ancient Greek music. A genre, the opera of the Baroque period had drawn its nourishment from ancient Greek tragedy. The earliest Greek tragedies evolved from festivals that celebrated Dionysus, the god of wine (i.e., cantatas), which became independent. The development of the show gradually expanded from a choir of 2 people to 15 people, usually about 3-5 plays. The theme of the work is mainly based on ancient Greek mythology and the scenes (there was no concept of “curtain” at this time). The main representatives of ancient Greek tragedy are Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. The years in which they lived were the early years, the height and the decline of Greek democracy, respectively, so that the content of their works reflects to some extent The colors of the time. The works represented are Prometheus the Bound (Aeschylus), Oedipus the King (Sophocles), Troy The Women (Euripides), etc.
Ancient Greek drama is not only tragedy, but also comedy, but the achievements and significance of the ancient Greek comedy can not be compared with the tragedy, and the representative of the only Aristophanes has works, compared to the tragedy of the fruitful, indeed relatively little.

② Ancient Greek music theory: four-note sequence and complete sequence system, harmony theory.

Although there was no notation in ancient Greece, there were many philosophers who explored the theory of music. The tetrameter is one of the most important achievements of the ancient Greek music theory. As to who first put forward the tetrameter, it is too far back in time to be found, but some people think it was the famous music theorist of ancient Greece. Aristoxenos [15] (Aristoxenos), although it is not clear whether it is a four-note sequence theory of the proposer, but it is certain that he made a great contribution to the theory.

According to Aristosenos, the complete fourth is the smallest harmonic interval, the first and last two tones of the four-note series form the complete fourth, and the remaining tones make changes within the framework of the fourth, and the first four-note series had only one tone in the middle, and later gave birth to the three basic forms of the natural four-note series, the chromatic four-note series, and the differential four-note series.

This achievement led directly to the formation of the complete system of tone series, the ancient Greek period. It is a scale that uses several (usually 2) tetraphic series to form the lower row of notes, and all of them use the natural tetraphic series.

The ancient Greeks moved up and down and varied the sequence system to obtain a number of scales, each based on several of the important of the tribe to name it.

First, there are four key tonalities

Dorian: mi re do si – la sol fa mi
Phrygian: re do si la – sol fa mi re
Lydian: do si la sol – fa mi re do
Mixo-lydian: si la sol fa – mi re do si

Next are four submodulations that use the above primary modulation as a basis for downward panning full fourths.

Lower Victoria (Hypodorian): la sol fa mi – re do si la
Lower Friesian (Hypophrygian): sol fa mi re – do si la sol
Hypolydian: fa mi re do – si la sol fa
Hypo-Mixo-Lydian: mi re do si – la sol fa mi

Two very important points need to be made. First, the idea of organizing these scale sequences has little to do with today’s concept of tonality, mostly indicating a symbol such as Used to represent the strings of a lira [16] or the pitches of an afro [17], in principle somewhat similar to the modern guitar sextet , denotes position rather than a specific sound; secondly, since the lower mixed Lydia is identical to Doria, we generally consider the ancient Greek There are a total of seven rather than eight scales of sound.

Harmonism: Pythagoras [18] of the ancient Greek period was the first recorded Western writer to use a mathematical approach to explain to people the The great man of musical phenomena, mainly by comparing and calculating different string lengths. He himself did not write, and Euclid [19] elaborated on Pythagoras in his own work, “Seeking the Law from the String Count Ideas, mainly.

String length 9:8, two notes are one whole note apart (this does not refer to a 12th equal tempered semitone), a whole note cannot be divided into two equal semitones.
For 2:1, two notes with an octave interval, an octave less than 6 whole tones is considered as an overlap or repetition.
For 3:2, two intervals of fifths, where the fifth is less than 3 whole tones plus a semitone.
For 4:3, two intervals of four notes, the fourth is less than two whole notes plus a semitone.
Only fourths, fifths, and octaves are harmonious intervals, the rest are discordant intervals.
As you can see, Pythagoras’s theory was very different from the present day twelve averages, but after all, Pythagoras was undoubtedly very forward-thinking to be able to use a mathematical deconstruction of music in the circumstances of the time.

Although in the preliminary stages of exploration, ancient Greek music theory still laid the strongest foundation stone for classical Western music, that is, the initial beginning of organizing notes in the environment of monophonic musical weaves and presenting them in sequences of notes, allowing for the initial exposure of the logical relationship between sounds and tones.

(iii) The ancient Greek view of musical ethics

The ethical view of music is the view and perception of the social functionality and ethical nature of music, which, although not much related to music itself, should be leaned on a little more ideologically and philosophically.

Plato, in his works The Ideal State and Timaeus, has detailed the ethical role of several scales in ancient Greece: ‘Doria’ Wealthy manhood makes one strong and temperate; Phrygia makes one ecstatic; Lydia makes one weak and lascivious; mixed Lydia makes one Sorrow.”

(4) Ancient Greek musical instruments: the lira and the aphoros pipes

Lyre: A very old plucked string instrument with a long history. Originally made of tortoise shell, it has four strings, which are made from animal intestines or tendons, and later developed into seven strings, called ki. The Sala (Kithara), is considered the instrument of the sun god. The lira is characterized by its more narrow resonance box, so it is better suited as a self-playing instrument rather than for larger performance situations .

The Aulos, a wind instrument of the ancient Greek period, is the ancestor of modern wind music. The Aulos consists of two pipes, one long and one short, each with several hole positions. The sound is closer in tone to the oboe in modern brass music, and the aulos, which has two pipes, is capable of producing two notes at once. Like Kisala, which corresponds to the sun god, the aphrodisiac was considered the instrument of the goddess of wine, and many ancient Greeks generally drank wine and played the aphrodisiac. Los tubes are made together.

2. Ancient Rome

After the fall of ancient Greece in 146 BC, Rome became the successor and champion of its culture, and the music was pretty much the same. Down the line, the changes were not very noticeable, mainly in the advancement of the two instruments and the birth of Christianity [20]. It is worth mentioning that the Romans, although inheriting the musical culture of the ancient Greeks, had a very different attitude, with the ancient Greeks being more The Romans regarded music as a noble accomplishment, while the ancient Romans were more concerned with the hedonistic and practical aspects of music.

1) Warlike peoples, the development of military music

The ancient Romans conquered the world and were an uncompromisingly warlike people, and military music began to develop rapidly in this environment. The ancient Romans began to use a large number of loud brass instruments in military music, in some of the big performances, sometimes up to hundreds of pieces! Even hundreds of wind instruments are compiled, and the atmosphere is extraordinary.

② Hedonism, the birth of the water-pressure organ

The ancient Romans were very keen to watch the gladiatorial battles (a warlike people after all) and the former Colosseum is located in what is now Rome, Italy.

In order to add to the atmosphere while watching the gladiatorial battles, the water-pressure organ was born. This was the earliest pipe organ[21] and became an iconic instrument of the time. (Forgive me, I really can’t find a picture of it)

(3) The Birth of Christianity and Early Christian Music

In the 1st century A.D., Christianity was born in the region of Palestine in ancient Rome, where it was first an illegal religion, spread in secret, and in 313 A.D., Constantine the Great (I’ve talked about this great man before, so you can read back on your own) issued the Edict of Milan, thus making Christianity a legal religion, which grew rapidly, and Constantine himself was baptized into the religion on his deathbed.

The earliest Christian music was solemn, purely vocal, and was opposed to the use of musical instruments. The exuberance and splendor of musical instruments very easily caused the faithful to recall various celebrations, wars, etc., and most of those who could play instruments were folk entertainers, not subject to the The church welcomed it. Even vocal music (chant) was changed from being sung by everyone in the earliest days to being sung only by trained choirs later.

In 476 A.D., the Western Roman Empire fell, but Christianity was handed down, beginning the following 1,000 years of the Middle Ages.

The long, dark medieval period was finally about to begin.

History of Western Music [I. General Introduction]

Western music, a very interesting and wide-ranging concept. The purpose of this series of articles is to give you my perspective on Western music and its history.

We often hear familiar names such as Beethoven, Mozart, Bach, Tchaikovsky, etc. Today, these names are very well known in Western classical music. Today, these names still shine brightly in the history of Western classical music. A richly colored chapter in the treasury of human civilization.

At the outset I must state what I believe to be the correct view of art history, even though the field of music and art is more subjective, it should still always be approached with a materialistic view of history, as will be mentioned several times later.

To give a simple example, music history is divided into time divisions only to facilitate research, and history can never be really broken point type. development. Musicians couldn’t have woken up in the morning of 1600, patted their heads, and said, “It’s Baroque from today, we should write Point Baroque music now.”

The development of music, like any other field of human endeavor, comes little by little and is subject to the many conditions of the times.

To make that clear, we can get down to business.

This is a general introduction to the first part of the article, and we should first be clear about the “West” of Western music and its specific geographical location.

Firstly, from the origins of Western music in ancient Greece and Rome until the 20th century, Europe has been the main development of Western music, with the general lineage extending from the south of Europe to the hinterland of Europe; secondly, in the 20th century, the main development of Western music shifted to the American continent, especially after the two world wars, the United States became the strong development of Western music.

Secondly, the history of Western music has been divided into several temporal divisions. The history of Western music can be roughly divided into seven periods from the ancient Greek era to the 20th century.

1. the Greco-Roman period (c. 1650 B.C[1]~476)

Ancient Greek civilization originated around the 16th century B.C., and by 146 B.C., Rome had conquered Greece and brought about the end of ancient Greece. During this period, Greek civilization went through the Mycenaean period (c. 1650~1100 B.C.), the Homeric period (c. 1100-800 B.C.), the city-state period (about 800-500 B.C.), and the classical period (about 500-500 B.C.). 338 B.C.), and the Hellenistic period (336-31 B.C.) totaling five periods. (For those who are interested, you can find out for yourself.)

After conquering Greece, Rome inherited many of the civilizations and cultures of ancient Greece, including music. Since the birth of Rome, there have been a total of Roman kingship (753~509 B.C.), the Roman Republic (509~27), and the Roman Empire (509~27). B.C), and the three periods of the Western Roman Empire (27 B.C ~ 476). [2]

The ancient Greeks and Romans did not even have notation because of their backward productivity and lack of means and tools to record their sounds. It is almost impossible to pass on to future generations, which has become an eternal shame. But the ancient Greek and Roman seers still had much to show for it, such as many reflections on the ethics of music, the theory of research, some of the first musical genres to be explored, some of the earlier instruments (liras, alsophone, etc.). The birth and development of Christianity, the initial tetrameter series (prototypical tonal formations), etc., all laid the foundation for the Western music of later generations.

2. Medieval period (476-1453)

Middle Ages (Middle Ages), refers to the period after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 A.D., when Europe entered the Middle Ages. The long period of history, which many historians refer to as the “Dark Ages,” began in Europe in 1453. It was during the Renaissance that this proclaimed the end of the Middle Ages. So, the entire Middle Ages lasted for almost 1,000 years.

In the 1st century A.D., Christianity was born, and after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Christianity ruled the spiritual world of the Europeans, coupled with the fact that Europe was in a state of war and chaos at this time, various peoples were establishing their own regimes, the Crusades, the Black Death and other diseases rampant, Europe at that time can be said to be the worst ever, it is said that the average life expectancy was even less than 40 years.

The Middle Ages was the true starting point for the history of Western music, and many of the achievements in the field of music began to originate during this time and influenced future generations for millennia.

The Middle Ages had several key words that could not be detoured, religious music, secular music, polyphony[3], notation, and music theory. These results are inseparable from the specific European realities of the time. Religious music of the time developed greatly, giving birth to a wide variety of genres; the medieval counterpart to religious music was secular music. In the past, different ethnic groups and regions have produced many distinctive secular vocal genres, such as bar form, bar chant, and bar chant. Lauda hymns (laude), etc.

Religious music and secular music have very sharp contrasts in terms of modulation, instrumentation, lyrics and even the venues used.

The Middle Ages also saw the birth of the first European polyphonic music, and the development of notation and music theory. For example, Canon, as it is known today, is actually a compositional technique that originated in the Middle Ages.

In general, although classical music was in its infancy during the Middle Ages, its millennia of accumulation and several extremely important achievements laid a very solid foundation for its subsequent development.

3. The Renaissance (1453-1600)

Renaissance, a period of about 150 years of Western history after the long Middle Ages Historical period. This was a period when people began to free their eyes and minds from God and Goddess and focus more on man himself. Art was similarly more focused on the human self.

The definition of the time of the Renaissance has been disputed by historians, and in fact the earliest Renaissance ideas would have been from the early 14th century onwards The period from 1300 to 1453 is often referred to as the “Art Nouveau”[4] period, which is the period of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. I see the Art Nouveau period as a buffer zone between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

As I said at the beginning of this essay, history is inherently impossible, and the division of time is for the sake of better research and does not imply that the period of the Middle Ages was a period of “art nouveau”[3]. The inter-temporal period is the break. But as a matter of personal habit, I generally assign the Art Nouveau period to the Middle Ages for study.

The Renaissance succeeded the Middle Ages, and religious and secular music each had its own fruitfulness. This period produced many schools of music, such as Burgundian, Flemish, Roman, and Venetian, and in the polyphonic There have been great technical breakthroughs in vocal music; in secular music, France, Germany, Italy, etc., have their own sizeable Vocal genre. (e.g., the Italian pastoral, which greatly influenced later opera and is even considered a precursor to opera)

It is worth noting that vocal music developed during the Renaissance, and some of the early instrumental genres based on them began to appear in the late Renaissance. Although these genres were only in their infancy at the time, they served as a precursor to the explosion of instrumental music genres that followed in the Baroque era.

4. Baroque period (1600-1750)

Baroque, from the Portuguese word meaning “irregular pearl”, i.e., containing “grotesque,” “grotesque,” or “pearly” pearls. Baroque” means “messy beauty”. In the history of art, the word “baroque” was first used to refer to the architectural style, which is characterized by ornate and precise carvings, grand architectural patterns. Borrowed from post-musical history, the music of the “baroque” is characterized by a magnificent quality and a great deal of sophistication. The can-do.

The Baroque starts and ends with one marker each: around 1600 was the birth of opera, and 1750 was the death of the musical giant Bach.

The music of the Baroque era is marked by several very iconic features, the digital bass [5], the improvisational treatment, the focus on concertos, and the Emotional factors, etc. And in terms of texture, the Baroque era was the peak era of polyphonic music and began the transition to the main key [6].

The instrumental genre of this era was greatly developed, and the instrumental music of the Baroque era was even as good as the powerful vocal music. gave birth to many early instrumental genres, such as the Baroque concerto (represented by Corelli, Vivaldi, Bach, etc.). Sonatas from the Baroque period (better known as D. Scarlatti), toccata (represented by Bach) , Suite (with Bach as the representative), etc. (So you should be able to see why Bach can be so awesome)

The vocal genre of this era also saw great breakthroughs, with the greatest achievement being the birth of opera, represented in the early years by Monteverdi, A. Scarlatti in Italy; Lully, Rameau in France; Purcell in England, Handel in Germany, and so on. There were other famous vocal genres of the same era, such as the cantata, the oratorio, the Passion, etc. (Bach wrote a great deal of cantatas, the (The creative energy of this big guy really never ceases to amaze me)

The greatest musical theoretical achievement of the Baroque period, in my opinion, was the beginning of the 12 equal temperament [7] on the keyboard. application, replacing previous tonal systems and tonal doctrines, which contributed to the prosperity of Baroque polyphony and the later The foundation was laid for the development of major-key music during the Classical period, and the number one contributor to this breakthrough was the great J. S. Bach ( God, is he omnipotent?)

In general, the music of the Baroque era follows the intellectual core of the Renaissance and possesses an extraordinary charm.

5. the classical period (1750-1827)

The Classical period, first of all, is conceptually different from classical music, and in the history of music, classical music is defined in a narrow and broad sense.

In the history of music, the identification of “classical music” is divided into a narrow sense and a broad sense. In the narrow sense, it refers specifically to the music of the second half of the 18th century to the 1820s, which was born in Vienna with the wave of the Enlightenment. The Viennese classical school of music, the music they composed. This school is represented by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and, more generally, by the professional music of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. Musical compositions such as those of the Baroque, Classical, and even later Romantic eras can be loosely classified as Classical music.

The “Classical Period” is the period of almost 70 years in the history of music, the period that followed the Baroque era and the Age of Enlightenment Romanticism. of time, because during these 70 years, the development of music took on many qualities that differed from those of the Baroque era, and these in turn contributed to the The foundation for the development of music in the Romantic era was laid. Therefore, following the above narrow and broad subdivision of “classical music”, the term “classical music” in general music history probably refers to the former. .

The classical period is still rather vague in its temporal positioning, and as I said at the beginning of this view of art history, music is not a quick fix. The delineation of eras is just for ease of research, and you can’t really take a categorical view of music history. Nonetheless, I use the death of Bach (1750) to the death of Beethoven (1827) as a starting point to divide classicalism Period this about 70 years or so.

The contribution of the classical era to music, in my opinion, is threefold: firstly, the identification of several important genres of instrumental music (sonata, concerto, symphony, string quartet); secondly, the technical progress of composition compared to the baroque era (simplification of motives, key music, clear bass notation, etc.); thirdly, the reform of opera, which gave a new life to opera and laid the foundation for the development of opera in the Romantic period.

Late in the Classical period, there was a marked increase in the productivity of Europe, and feudal society began to crumble (e.g., the famous French Revolution was (occurring at this time), the development of the bourgeoisie and the beginnings of urbanization and industrialization, which led a group of musicians to try to get out of the court, developed independently (the first musician in history to be independent of the court was Mozart), and this socio-historical condition is followed by the The Romantic era had a more pronounced manifestation. So, I have to refer back to the view of art history at the beginning of my article.

The music of the Classical period was the peak of traditional instrumental music, and instrumental music was equal to or even superior to vocal music, laying a solid foundation for the development of the following Romantic music.

6. the Romantic period (1800-1900)

Romanticism (Romanticism), and the chronological location is vague, with the approximate date being the home of Romantic music throughout the 19th century.

During Romanticism, Europe was in the midst of sweeping changes. With England taking the lead in completing the Industrial Revolution in 1840, the whole of Europe collectively began a dramatic transformation. Industrialization and urbanization led to significant growth in the instrument manufacturing industry, and musical instruments began to become cheap and affordable for the average family! At the same time, musicians developed in large numbers independently of the court and the aristocracy, giving rise to the professions of music agent and music critic (see below). Schumann used to be a music manager and music critic)

The music of the Romantic period had many new characteristics, which I will briefly explain from two latitudes of musical style and genre development.

Firstly, in the style of the Romantic period, musicians paid more attention to the expression of emotions in music, rather than being satisfied with the classical period. For musical bars. The music of the Romantic period was very different in the areas of harmony, tonality, and so on.

Classical music, refined, rigorous, whether for harmonic writing, harmonic function, orchestral orchestration, and even polyphonic counterpoint, have more stringent rules; Romanticism, the music in the tonal use of frequent distant relations in modulation, making the music has a sense of tonal wandering (which also laid the foundation for the 20th century tuneless music), melodic frequent use of chromatic intervals, harmony also uses a large number of color tone (Schubert is the master of this piece).

Secondly, in terms of genre, instrumental music, the Romantic period, the development of large instrumental genre is relatively small, the development of the focus on piano music-based instrumental pieces (such as Chopin, Mendelssohn) and chamber music; vocal music, the development of the focus is still in the opera, compared to the baroque period and the classical period, the Romantic period of opera presents many different qualities.

It is worth mentioning that throughout the 19th century, due to the development of urbanization, emigration became a norm, so many musicians were in foreign lands, coupled with a series of emotional catalysts such as the “Rivalry Movement”, ethnicity became an important theme in the 19th century Romantic music, many countries emerged national representatives of musicians or national music schools, such as Poland’s Chopin, Russia’s Glinka, Tchaikovsky, “The Five”, Czech Smetana, Norway’s Grieg, Finland’s Sibelius and so on.

Throughout the 19th century Romantic music presented a hazy, irregular sense of wandering that set the stage for the 20th century.

7. 20th Century Music (1900 to present)

As the timeline moves into the 20th century, music takes on a more colorful and diverse quality. During this period, there were many events in world history, two world wars, the third technological revolution, etc., which artistically All fields reflected it, such as the fine arts, which gave birth to Impressionism and Expressionism, and literature, which gave birth to Existentialism, Stream of Consciousness. Surrealism, etc., and even more so the emergence of a whole new art form like cinema.

In the first half of the 20th century, impressionist music ( (representing Debussy, Ravel, etc.), Expressionist music (representing Schoenberg, Webern, Berger, etc.), Neoclassical music ( (representing Stravinsky, Hindemith, etc.) These three genres.

The music of the 20th century presents so many different qualities that it is difficult to summarize them carefully; in general, it is based on the Romantic period and is characterized, roughly speaking, by the following five points.

(1) Tonal music is gradually declining. Since the time of the Baroque, the major and minor key system has gradually become the center of traditional musical works, but since the 20th century, many works of tonal It is characterized by a very weak or even complete intonation. During this period there were various approaches, such as some composers who did not use scales in the melodic context, or even more extreme ones who created their own scales. phonetic series.

Harmony is no longer pursued in harmony and balance. Traditional classical music to harmony and balance for the beauty of the harmony, modern music is to break this rule, frequent use of eleven chords, thirteen chords and so on. Highly stacked chords, and the concept of chords no longer being built in a traditional frame (triplets), even in the later stages.

(iii) The rhythm and tempo undergo many changes. Traditionally, the beat and rhythm were the skeleton of the piece, but after the 20th century, the rhythm of many musical pieces began to undergo variations, some using compound rhythms, some even without rhythms, and even more freely arranged by the player.

(4) Differential notes appear in the series. After the 12 equal temperament system was established and applied in the Baroque period, the semitone was regarded as the minimum interval. Bound, began to compose in smaller quarter tones, 1/6 tones, and the Czech composer Haba was truly the first systematic composer who used differential tones to compose, he also founded the Department of Differential Music at the Prague Conservatory.

⑤ There have been many changes in the instrumentation. Traditional classical music emphasizes harmony, balance, and instrumentation that has been explored over the centuries, culminating in a scientific configuration, while modern music has become more and more complex. The music makes heavy use of noise (this noise is a musical concept, not an acoustic one), extreme registers, highlighting percussion. Seeking many new instrument combinations, sound colors.

Concluding Remarks
This is my first article related to the history of Western music, and I am very thankful for the encouragement and support from all the like-minded friends, and I would like to ask all the senior teachers and students for their advice.

I hope that through this series of writing (xia), I can bring you into a new door, popularize some interesting stories in music history, and explain some simple music theory knowledge in layman’s terms, which is my original intention.