Medieval music (III): music theory

The more noteworthy musical theories of the Middle Ages had three components.

I. Church Tone
It was mentioned earlier that in the ancient Greek period, there were seven tonal scales: dolorous, Phrygian, lydian, mixed Lydia, para-Doria, para-Phrygia, para-Lydia. And in the medieval church tonal scales, there were eight. Although the names of these eight scales followed the ancient Greek period, the arrangement of the scales was changed. The specific eight tonal scales are in the four basic tones of Doria, Frigia, Lydia, and Mixed Lydia, plus their respective variations Form Composition. respectively Doria, Paradoria, Frigia, Paradigia, Lydia, Paradigia, Mixed Lydia, Para-Mixed Lydia Bottomia. (If you can’t remember, just assume this paragraph isn’t there.)

II. notation.
The earliest currently available sheet music on medieval music is the chant manuscript that appeared in the 9th century, where the sheet music for the notation spectrum, also known as the “Num spectrum”. The development of the Numu genealogy in the Middle Ages went through four stages.

Stage 1. It is to mark the outline of the approximate melody by marking the top of the lyrics with dots, horizontal lines, slashes, and other symbols, as follows.

 

Stage 2. It is the addition of one or two horizontal lines to the Newham score to indicate some relative pitch, as follows.

Stage Three. It is the addition of a couple of lines to the original Newham score that had one or two lines, which became four lines, thus making the pitch markings clearer as follows.

Stage 4. The four-line Newm can already mark the pitches almost clearly, but not yet the rhythms. In the 13th century, Franco (the same Franco who wrote Franco’s scripture songs), in his book “The Art of Measured Songs, A new system of note durations is proposed. Briefly, based on the four-line Newmus spectrum, the original notes are added with various lengths of vertical lines, or the The black dots on the notes of the Newham score get bigger, wider, more square, etc. to express the different time values. (Unfortunately, the sheet music didn’t have a picture, so we’ll make it up when we find one. (We can brainstorm.)

The music theory of Guido
In the 11th century, there was a music theorist named Guido d’Arezzo (c. 1025), who A set of choral names was invented to sing the notes of the then current Newham score to help the choir distinguish and remember whole notes when singing chants and semitone position, he wrote a hymn at the time called “Thy Faithful Ones,” and the first six syllables of the first six lines of this hymn were : ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, which he used to name the six syllables of the hexatonic scale of the time. Later, musicians changed ut to do and added a si after la, resulting in the most familiar modern The scale (do re mi fa sol la si) has been sung.

addendum
The current narrative focuses on musical content from the 13th century and earlier, with the 14th century to be included as a separate section Go and speak. Then one should ask why the 14th century is being addressed separately, but here is a brief explanation.

In the Middle Ages, there was a more detailed historical phase, namely, the “Ancient Period” and the “Art Nouveau Period”. The “Archaic period” refers in particular to the period from the twelfth to the thirteenth centuries, when religious music was more mature, while the “Art Nouveau period” refers to the period from the twelfth to the thirteenth centuries, when religious music was more mature. “represents the new musical trends of the Middle Ages. The “Art Nouveau period” refers mainly to the 14th century, and its stylistic features are particularly prominent in French and Italian music. .

Therefore, the 14th century needs to be addressed differently from the music that preceded it. In our next article, we will focus on the French and Italian music of the “Art Nouveau” period of the Middle Ages of the 14th century.