Ancient Greek and Roman music

The origins of Western music can be traced back to the ancient Greek period. Between 3500 B.C. and 2000 B.C., the “four great civilizations” of mankind emerged on Earth. One of them, the ancient Greek civilization in the Mediterranean, was the beginning of the Western European civilization, which emerged with the rise of the southern tip of Greece in 2000 BC. Crete.

By the time ancient Greek civilization developed around 800 B.C., the primitive clan society was disintegrating, and a number of Greek areas began to be established One of the city-states of slavery was very important, and this city-state was – Athens. In the 5th century B.C., the ancient Greek civilization, centered in Athens, developed a culture of philosophy, theater, music, architecture, and sculpture to the point where to a very high degree, and the now familiar Pythagoras, Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle were all at this time The characters.

(i) Musical Instruments and Musical Works of Ancient Greece

The earliest known European music is that of ancient Greece, and according to some sources it is known that the musical centers in Europe were It used to be in ancient Greece. The ancient Greeks believed that music was created by the “gods”, so their musical activities were usually associated with some religious rituals.

1.Musical Instruments

There were two common musical instruments used in ancient Greece: the lyre and the aulos.

The lyre was a plucked stringed instrument and was a relatively simple instrument that could be played by amateurs.

Based on the lyre, the kithara, a larger instrument than the lyre, was developed and used primarily for accompaniment and solos, an instrument that required a professional player, and it was often used in ceremonial pilgrimages to the sun god Apollo, as well as to accompany the vocal music of the time.

The afros is a wind instrument, often played with two pipes in hand at the same time, and was used primarily in rituals to worship Dionysus, the god of wine, but was also commonly used as an accompaniment to plays of the time.

2. Musical works

Because ancient Greek civilization is so far back in time, only 40 pieces and fragments of ancient Greek music have been discovered. Some of the more representative ones are: the Epitaph of Psykylos, two hymns from the temple of Apollo, three Mesomae on Crete Des’s hymn. And so on. What was the music like then? Modern scholars have restored the music of the Muse Hymn of Mesomedes from documentary sources, and we can listen to it (because we know) You can’t upload audio, unfortunately there are few links on the early music networks, so the audio can only be inserted as an attachment and opened. It will be a bit tricky, but good to listen to. (More links will be used in future Baroque articles for easy listening and reading.

Lyrics to the effect: Sing to me, dear Muse, sing to me, the cool, mighty wind that blows through the woods, opens my heart and awakens my soul.

Through the music of the Muse Hymn of Mesomedes, some basic characteristics of ancient Greek music can be seen: monophonic, music and poetry rhythm in unison, music in which instruments will have some ornamental playing.

(ii) Music Theory of Ancient Greece

Ancient Greek music theory had three main elements in comparison.

1. the founder of ancient Greek music theory, Pythagoras (c. 580-500 BC), argued that. “Everything is number”, he believed that music is determined by numbers and insisted, according to mathematical principles, that the octave, fifth and fourth intervals are Most concordant.

2. Aristocenus (c. 330 BC) and Cleonides ( Cleonides (c. 200 A.D.) considered the “tetrachord” to be the musical system of the Foundation. Based on the four-note scale, seven scales can be arranged: Dorian, Phrygian ( Phrygian), Lydian, Mixolydian, Paratypical Doria (Hypodorian), Hypophrygian, and Lydia (Deputy). Hypolydian), the music is named after the place names of the time, and the names of these scales have survived to this day.

Plato and Aristotle, believed that: music can influence the character, thoughts and behavior of people. Aristotle even believed that music could educate and influence people’s moral character.

Ancient Roman music
After the Roman conquest of Greece, Rome essentially inherited the music of ancient Greece, but also developed it in some ways. For example: in ancient Rome, music became more active in more private

creational and educational settings; the Afropos pipe emerged as an A variant, called Tibia. Tibia was commonly used in Roman religious ceremonies, military bands and theatres.

One important thing that happened at the end of ancient Rome was the rise of Christianity in the Mediterranean region and in the Roman Empire, especially in the 313th The Edict of Milan, recognizing its legitimacy, became stronger, which led to the gradual development of music for the Christian liturgy. As the church replaced the political power of the Roman Empire, it became the main force influencing the development of music.

Early Christian music was characterized by several features.

First, that the Christian Church retains the musical character of ancient Greece and Rome, but at the same time rejects the entertainment role of music and advocates that it serve religion.

Secondly, that the Christian Church would have many ceremonies and rituals, and that at particular ceremonies and rituals there would be particular music.

Thirdly, as Christianity spread throughout Europe, different ritual traditions were formed, which led to the creation of different kinds of ritual music, the most representative of which include the French “censer chant”, the Spanish “Mozarabic chant”, the Milan “Ambrosian chant”, etc. The influence of Christianity on music only began in ancient Rome.

The influence of Christianity on music was only the beginning in ancient Rome. In the thousands of years that followed, European music has always been closely related to religion. How it developed and evolved is described in detail in the following article.

The basics of classical music

I. What exactly is classical music?

The term “classical music” was first used in the early 19th century, when it was primarily Used to summarize the period from the Baroque to Classicism (c. 1750-1827), with Bach, Haydn, Mozart, the Beethoven and other representatives of the music composed. But as it has been widely used, the period it refers to has been expanded, and the broadest definition can even cover the entire West. Music.

The definition of “classical music” in both the Oxford English Dictionary and the Longman Dictionary mentions the word “serious”. “, a word that is translated as “serious” in some materials, but a more reasonable translation is “thought-provoking.” This is the most important quality that distinguishes classical music from other music.

In order to give the reader a more complete picture of Western music, this column will cover music from the ancient Greek period to the 20th century.

II. The historical period of classical music

In the long historical development of Western music, there is necessarily a problem of dividing historical periods. According to the general consensus of current scholarship, the history of Western music as a whole can be divided into the following period stages.

(i) Ancient Greek and Roman periods (8th-5th centuries B.C.)

(ii) Middle Ages (5th – 15th centuries)

(iii) Renaissance (15th-16th centuries)

(iv) Baroque period (17th century – first half of the 18th century)

(v) Classical period (18th – early 19th centuries)

(vi) The Romantic period (19th century – early 20th century)

(vii) 20th Century Music (20th Century)

The above historical phases are divided according to the musical styles, compositional techniques, creative thinking and other elements of different periods, because the artistic phases are different from history and dynasties and are not clear-cut, so there are overlapping situations, but the overall division is still relatively clear.

This column also focuses on the historical background, musical style, composers, and representative works of each historical phase according to this historical phasing. The presentation will be made in the context of different topics. Some of the more representative composers, musical works and genres will be systematically explained in relation to different topics.

Introduction to Classical Music – Classical Music is All Around Us

Nietzsche: Without music, life is a mistake, a misery, an exile.

Santayana: Music will not make you rich, but it will make you happy. He will not save your soul, but it will make it worth saving.

Talking about classical music, especially the word “classical”, often gives people a stereotypical and difficult impression. Hopeless. Indeed, classical music has a very strict and precise musical form, rich in meaning and spirit, and without a knowledge of music theory as a foundation , listened to it once or twice, felt like listening to a book of heaven, especially a large work of long duration, couldn’t figure out what was going on, listened to it and made myself I was very irritated. (I just started listening to classical music.) So I stayed away from classical music, thinking that it was all in the “old paper pile”. Something that’s still far from the modern world.

I am often asked how I should get started with classical music. How should classical music sound? Usually my advice is to start with the classical music that is within reach and familiar to you.

For example, the well-known “Wedding March”, from Wagner’s opera “Lohengrin”, you can search the Internet for the four choral versions of this music, you will find that the wedding march, in addition to the fervor and solemnity that we have usually heard in the pure music version, there is a sense of calm and sacred, this variety of feelings mixed together, really like what we feel when we attend a wedding.

I once saw a commercial, in which there is not a single line of advertising, the background music to guide the commercial, the real ad picture to match. Very good, there’s ballet, that’s light; there’s cat, that’s keen; there’s dove, that’s sturdy; there’s book, that’s strength; there’s coffee, that’s… It’s the rhyme; there’s the kids, it’s the peace; that commercial soundtrack ties it all together and gives the real ad a sense of power and Awe-inspiring. Exactly! The music is called The Mighty March (No. 1), and was written by the famous English composer Elgar (1857-1934) )’s masterpiece of legacy. By using this atmospheric music to drive what the ad is trying to say, our inner feelings are undoubtedly elevated to a higher level in the In the UK, this music is also known as the “second national anthem”.

If you are careful, you may also find that the subway nowadays also plays some well-known piano music. The film has a love affair with classical music and is famous for its musical passages. The film’s use of classical music is even more beloved, and Daichi is famous for its musical passages, and if Starr had directed “The Mermaid, It’s the use of Sarasate’s famous “Vagabond Song” (you’ve heard of it, don’t believe me), “The King’s Speech It’s even a classic case of classical music passages being quoted in classic movies (oh, am I being tongue-in-cheek?…).

From my own experience of listening to music, one way to get close to classical music is to find the “resonance” first. This sense of resonance, in fact, is to let your familiarity with the classical melody extend to the entire piece of music, and gradually become interested in other passages.

An analogy can be made with reading. For example, when reading the article “a single spark can start a prairie fire”, when you see “it is standing in the sea in the coast demon king already visible mast tip It is a ship standing on the summit of a high mountain and looking to the east has seen a round of radiant sunrise, it is restless in the mother’s belly. When I read the paragraph “a baby on the verge of maturity”, it dawned on me: Oh, so these famous words came from this article. Immediately, I felt a special affinity with this article, and when I read the preceding words, I felt a different sense of receiving the information by myself. It’s also a lot more sensitive.

The same goes for classic melodies. It’s generally widely sung, catchy, and easy to remember, and everyone can probably hum a bit of it, like above As much as the Wedding March and the Awesome March are mentioned, there are actually many more, such as “Blue Danube”, The Turkish March (the one played at the opening of the sports day), Ode to Joy, and so on. Hearing a classic melody is like seeing a classic text, by repeatedly smacking the middle of the flavor, and when you are familiar with it, you follow the picture. Go find the whole work and listen to it. This way, you will gradually get close to and accept the whole work, and then you will gradually understand the real work. Over time, you will gain an understanding of the different styles of different composers, the connections between different repertoires, and the types of music from different historical periods. A more intuitive feel.

Embrace classical music! Start by listening to the classical music around you!

The History of Western Music in My Eyes [IV. Renaissance]

In this chapter we begin our account of Western music during the Renaissance, which, after a long Middle Ages, finally came to fruition during the Renaissance.

The Renaissance, an intellectual and cultural movement in Europe from the 14th to 16th centuries, had a profoundly The historical background of the history of music mainly reflects the political aspirations and demands of the emerging European bourgeoisie of the time. Music presents many new features in this historical context, and a discussion of music history is of course inseparable from a particular historical context.

First, the Renaissance, the collision of old and new
The Renaissance really took effect on music in a period of about 150 years, from 1453 to 1600, which in itself is short compared to the 1000 years of the Middle Ages, but during this period there was an important event that must be mentioned: the Reformation, and an important background: the rise of the bourgeoisie and science.

1. the Reformation

As mentioned earlier, medieval Europe was a feudal society, and Christianity survived the fall of the Western Roman Empire, while the Eastern Roman Empire still existed, and it was here that Christianity was first divided, with Christianity in Europe called Catholicism and Christianity in the Eastern Roman Empire (i.e., the Byzantine Empire) called Orthodox Christianity.

In the Middle Ages Catholicism controlled the spiritual life of Europeans, the Pope and the Emperor supported each other, and Catholicism experienced a thousand years of power. It had already become corrupt. This trait was most evident in 1517, when the Roman Catholic Church began its blatant sale of “indulgences”, and in the same year. Father Martin Luther published the 95 Theses and debated the Pope, a debate that led to the subsequent Reformation, Protestantism And thus was born.

Catholicism believes that you are born sinful, and that the vouchers of redemption, where you buy your sins on earth to save you from future suffering in hell, the more you buy, the more your sins are remitted, and the blatant move out of God to ring up money and amass wealth; Martin Luther opened a discussion on this, represented by the Syllabus of 95 Articles, questioning Catholicism and the Pope, leading to a break between Roman Catholicism and Martin Luther, who burned the Pope’s excommunication in public and established another Protestant religion.

This was the general course of the Reformation and the second separation of Christianity in history, and the beginning of the confrontation between Catholicism and Protestantism.

2. the rise of the bourgeoisie and science

The biggest difference between the Renaissance and the Middle Ages was that people were less concerned with worshiping God and more concerned with themselves. Change actually has deep historical roots. It includes geography, demographics, history, and so on. This is also a very important perspective of materialistic history.

The origins of European civilization lie in ancient Greece, where the small size of the land made it impractical to develop agriculture, and self-produced industry was impossible.

Interestingly, this is in stark contrast to China. In contrast to ancient Greece, geographically, China’s vast land mass and vastness of land was very suitable for the development of agriculture, bearing in mind that feudal society was essentially It was a society of exploiters and exploited peasantry, where the peasants were safe and the merchants were slippery, and therefore the feudal rulers disliked it the most. The merchants, from which the ancient Chinese ranking of “scholar, peasant, agricultural, commercial and industrial” is derived, because the last two represent the higher productivity and relations of production, and their development was bound to overthrow the landowning class. In China, the vastness of the land and the strong agrarian culture made the social and production relations of feudal society as solid as the Chinese The traditional spiritual core is more inclined to be peaceful than pioneering, a trait that is more pronounced inland and better in coastal areas. This is the most obvious manifestation of the influence of geography on people.

And Europe happens to occupy many favorable conditions: first, geographical conditions: although the continent is also very large, but the origin of the cultural core of the European people It was Ancient Greece, and the ancestors of Europeans were predominantly Germanic, and both peoples were predominantly maritime cultures from the earliest times; II. History Reality: feudalism in Europe never reached its peak, was held back by many forces (such as Catholicism), and was difficult to truly unify. Most of the time small and fragmented countries; iii. economic base: Europe had a well-developed business and trade industry from an early stage, which was well established, in particular The Crusades brought in many new elements, and Europeans broadened their horizons; iv. the Renaissance was based on several of the above conditions. The full explosion, especially in the later geographic discoveries (the great seafaring era, the opening of new shipping routes), and the Europeans began to fully open up the veins of the Yamato that laid the framework for the modern era.

Against this background, the European bourgeoisie emerged, feudalism was relatively weak, and the new class forces were bound to put forward their economic and political demands; science began to sprout, the classic example being Copernicus’ “heliocentric theory” against the Catholic “geocentric theory”.

The music of the West shared the fate of the times and took on many new qualities.

II. Music of the Renaissance
In the late Middle Ages, polyphonic music was sufficiently developed to enter the Renaissance after the Notre Dame school of music had gathered its strength. However, instrumental music was still not more fully developed at this time, so the Renaissance was the peak of the development of polyphonic vocal music, and I still The three perspectives of polyphonic, religious and secular music are approached.

The polyphonic weaving and the dominant weaving are two different weaves which are both different and related. The polyphonic weaving focuses on the equality between the voices, each voice has the power to express themes and emotions; while the dominant weaving in the baroque music, the polyphonic weaving in the baroque music. The period is only beginning to sprout, and only reached flourishing during the Classical period, with a primary and secondary distinction between the voices, and a clear contrast between harmony and melody.

An easy way to tell the difference is to listen to the polyphonic loom, you will feel as if every part is singing a melody, not so with the dominant loom, you can clearly hear the difference between melody and harmony, and the melody is dominant, the pop music we are currently listening to is the dominant loom.

Let’s get to the point.

1: Polyphonic music is a big development

The previous work describes the trajectory of polyphonic music in the medieval period, from the earliest Olgarnon to Conductus to canon and scripture song, the polyphonic approach became more and more numerous, and the vocal parts grew from two to three and four at first.

In spite of the Reformation, the awakening of humanity, and a number of other events and new trends, the Catholic Church was still a powerful force, and the main field of development of polyphonic vocal music was still in religious music.

In the course of a century or two, the Renaissance produced four main schools of music: Burgundian, Flemish, Roman and Venetian.

① Burgundy School: early Renaissance, in northern France, Belgium and The border area of the Netherlands (historically this area was called the Netherland) gave birth to the Burgundian School (also known as Netherland’s First School). This school of music was early to use three-part polyphony for composition. The composers represented were Dufy and Benshuwa.

The golden age of the Burgundian school of music, from about 1400 to 1450, was the junction between the two eras of Art Nouveau and the Renaissance, and it contributed fine three-part polyphonic vocal music, establishing the regular five-part writing form of the Mass on the basis of Marceau, as well as French secular polyphonic music, Chanson (to be mentioned later), which laid a solid foundation for the Flemish school of music and four-part polyphonic vocal music of the Renaissance.

The Flemish School (Flemmich School): At the height of the Renaissance, the Flemish School (also known as the Second and Third Niederland School) was born in the Niederland region, and it was the most important school of music during the entire Renaissance.

This school of music went through three generations and summarized the following main contributions.

Emphasis on the equal status of all voices, all having the function and power to present a theme.
Begins to value harmonic fullness, simple harmonic structures emerge (three chords appear intact for the first time)
Began to apply regular and variable frame terminations, with the first signs of functional harmony.
The Flemish school went through three generations, each represented by a composer.

Johannes Ockeghem (1410-1497), the first representative composer, was deeply influenced by Burgundian music, with a wide melodic range and rich acoustics, and was highly accomplished in imitating polyphony.

Josquin des Prez (1450-1521), one of the greatest composers of the Renaissance, was a master of polyphony, along with Michelangelo, and was rumored to have been a student of Ockeghem.

The third representative composer, Orlando Di Lasso (1532-1594), a Flemish musician who explored functional harmony and established the T-D, D-T functional harmony circle.

It is very important to note that in this passage of mercy Kyrie uses the technique of imitating polyphony, in which the four voices can be heard in sequence with the same The melodic range of the melody enters, resulting in a very full-bodied soundscape that is well worth listening to (with headphones!)

③ Roman School: Roman School was formed a little later than Flemish School, when Rome was the center of Catholicism and the religious power was strong.

The Roman School was represented by the composer G. P da Palestrina (c. 1525~ (1594), Palestrina developed the polyphony of the Flemish school to its zenith, the most famous being Pope Marchelos’ The Mass is written for six voices. His style of music is calm, simple and pure, and is representative of the Romanesque style.

Post a snippet of Palestrina’s Hodie Christus Natus Est.

The Venetian School was formed in the second half of the 15th century by A. Willaerte, a composer from Flanders, with an early, distinctly Flemish style, and in the 16th century, Giovanni Gabrieli (G. Gabrieli, 1557-1612) had an important influence on its development.

This school differs from the first three in that the Venetian composers employed a number of instruments as accompaniments, especially G. Gabrieli , he explores the possibilities of many instrumental combinations and attempts to enhance the contrast between vocal parts and instrumental groups. In the magnificent St Mark’s Cathedral, these composers explored the imposing, echoing polyphonic chant, a new Unlike the first three schools of music, the polyphonic voice, which later reached Germany, became the precursor to the great concertos of the Baroque era.

It can be said that the first three schools of music developed polyphonic vocal music to its peak, while the Venetian school built on its predecessors and began to explore instrumental music The possibility of polyphony, and indeed by the end of the Renaissance, had developed Canzona, Lichekal ( The earliest polyphonic instrumental genres, such as Ricercare, were developed in the Baroque era. It also laid a solid foundation for the great development of instrumental music in the Baroque era.

Giovanni Gabrieli, an excellent organist and a gifted musician with a keen sense of instrumental music, studied organ playing with his uncle Andrea Gabrieli and went to Munich to work as court musician.

Aware of the space offered by St. Mark’s Basilica, he grouped instrumental music together and experimented with different combinations, and is considered the “father of orchestration”, most notably the Sacrae Symphoniae of 1597.

2. religious music, new variations on chant.

After the Reformation, Protestantism took Europe by storm, and a group of believers and composers, represented by Martin Luther, attempted a new interpretation of the original of Catholic music (especially Gregorian chant) undergoes a transformation. In this transformation, chant exhibits many characteristics in different countries, but at the core two are the same: one is the use of one’s own The chant is sung in the native language instead of Latin; the melody is reworked and used in combination with the original melody.

The resulting new chants were called chorale in Germany, psalter in France and Switzerland, and anthem and service in England.

These musical reforms were spiritually and culturally consistent with the principles of the Protestant Reformation, contributed greatly to the spread of Protestantism in Europe, and, most importantly, were close to the masses, making Protestant music a more homogeneous experience for believers.

3. secular music of the renaissance.

In the Middle Ages, each country had its own minstrels, but by the end of the Renaissance, each country had developed its own national vocal genre, the most important being the Italian madrigal and the French chanson.

The most important are the Italian madrigal and the French chanson, which was born in about 1530, in the second half of the 16th century. into its prime. Early pastoral music was a polyphonic (usually in 3 to 4 parts) choral polyphony, first intended for the educated population composed (Jesuardo himself was an aristocrat), its lyrics are highly literary and tuneful, and its subjects are mostly glorifying love or The love of nature.

In the second half of the 16th century, pastoral music gradually developed into five to six voices, and the subject matter was gradually enriched, for example, with such an orientation as satirical allegory. Most importantly, at this time, pastoral music had gradually developed in the direction of the main-tonal weaving, and it can be said that secular vocal music was ahead in this area. Religious Vocal Music.

The three main representative composers of pastoral music are Luca-Marenzio (1553-1599), Carlo-Gesualdo (1561-1613), Claudio-Monteverdi (1567-1643)

Luca Marenzio: The eldest of the trio and one of the representatives of pastoral music in its prime, Marenzio’s polyphonic compositions are so exquisite and so well suited to pastoral music that he has even been described as “the Schubert of pastoral music”.
Carlo Gesuardo: outstanding late Renaissance pastoral composer, lutenist. His early life was miserable, especially when his wife cuckolded him and he killed her and her adulterer. A niece, Leonora, became Prince of Venosa in 1586. Probably influenced by the infidelity of his first wife, his style in music showed many qualities, often love and death and so on Title.
Claudio Monteverdi: the most accomplished of the Three Jerks, a composer between the late Renaissance and early Baroque. In his early studies of pastoral, polyphonic music, in 1607, on the basis of pastoral music, he composed the first truly historical Opera: “Orfeo,” which officially opens the era of Baroque opera.

② Chanson: France was the first place where troubadours appeared in the Middle Ages, and has developed over the centuries. France has developed its own unique genre of national secular polyphonic vocal music: the chanson.

Chanson is not particularly important compared to pastoral music, after all, the predecessor of opera was mainly pastoral, and opera is still very important in the history of music. The significance of the. However, Chanson itself has a light and beautiful melody, fresh and strong rhythms, and is itself a very fine genre of vocal polyphony. Like pastoral music, it is about love and the love of nature and was very popular in France at the time.

Its representative composers were C. Janequin (1485-1558) and N. Gombert (unknown date of birth and death).

It’s worth noting that Shanson is a vocal genre, and this version was reset with Renaissance instrumental music (forgive me if I can’t find the vocal version).

Third, the influence of Renaissance music on later generations
I prefer to think of the Renaissance as a transitional period, just as the “Art Nouveau” period was a transition between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, which was more of a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Baroque period.

In this period, polyphonic vocal music reached unprecedented heights and gave birth to the most important music of the Baroque era. Vocal genre – opera. Although not prominent in polyphonic instrumental music, some preliminary explorations were made (recounted in the subsequent Baroque era).

It can be argued that the Renaissance had a number of important influences on the music of later generations, summarized in three main points.

The development of polyphonic compositional techniques to their peak and their fruitfulness in vocal music, as well as initial explorations in instrumental music, set the stage for the simultaneous explosion of polyphonic vocal and instrumental music in the Baroque era.
Many genres of religious music were standardized during the Renaissance, and most of the later generation’s religious music compositions were based on the Renaissance.
The Venetian school was the first orchestration, the Flemish school was the first functional harmony, and the polyphony became more sophisticated, so if medieval musicians standardized notation, the Renaissance was the first to explore compositional theory.
The Renaissance, as an era of continuity, held the key to the Baroque era.

The first golden age in the history of Western music, the Baroque era, was about to arrive.

The History of Western Music as I See It [III, Medieval]

In the Middle Ages, these instruments could not be found in churches, as religious music was about reverence and solemnity, and the only instrument allowed to be used was the organ, which is often featured in secular music in these videos.

After all, the era is so old, plus the notation is incomplete, medieval music is basically a late reset, so you can only try to get as close to that feeling of the time as possible, and the audio and video sources can be quite mixed, begging for forgiveness.

During the latter part of the Roman Empire, the Germans in the north of Europe continued to invade and harass the Western Roman Empire, which fell in 476 AD. . Because of the existence of various branches of the Germanic peoples (Franks, Goths, Angles, etc.), it was not until the Germans destroyed the West that the Germans were able to destroy the West. After the Roman Empire, they each established their own regimes, large and small, and Europe entered the Medieval period.

In addition, Christianity, founded in the first century A.D., was able to continue to grow after the fall of the Western Roman Empire and during the Middle Ages became a The spiritual ruler of the whole of Europe, and therefore religious music was the most important component of medieval music. At the same time, secular music took a different path from religious music, mainly in terms of modulation, instrumentation, lyrics and even the use of place. etc.

State regimes, large and small, controlled the politics of Europe, and Christianity controlled the spirit of Europe, and these two forces colluded with each other to Given support, Europe grew slowly throughout the Middle Ages in a long period of darkness. Under the circumstances, many Europeans found spiritual solace through Christianity, and the popularity and dominance of Christianity in Europe reached summit. The Pope and the Emperor report to each other, and the Emperor’s succession would be more convincingly recognized by the Pope’s coronation; the Pope borrowed the Emperor’s Political power gets more entitlements, and the Vatican in Europe today is the same Vatican that Pippin dedicated to the Pope. So it is said: the Pope crowned the Emperor and the Emperor fed the Pope.

One, the Middle Ages, a time of darkness and light.
This section, like its predecessor, aims to quickly clarify the general historical context of the first millennium of the Middle Ages and several historical events as quickly as possible, to facilitate the historical background for the rest of music history.

1. the great conflagration and the fragmentation of a multinational regime

Since the fall of the Western Roman Empire to the Germans, the various branches of the Germanic nation began to separate themselves, carving out territories to form kingdoms and Attacking each other, the era of the Great Scuffle thus began. There are no particularly important historical events of this era, the main, more powerful ones being the Franks and the Angles, because of the They laid the basic pattern of Europe.

During this period, Christianity was preserved, and the invading Germans treated Christianity much more politely than when they packed up the Romans, after all, they belonged to the invasion of outsiders and needed a moral and spiritual high ground, obviously, Christianity became a good breakthrough.

2. unification again, the Caroline dynasty

During the first period mentioned above, the Franks, a branch of the Germanic peoples, established the Merovingian dynasty[1], the first dynasty of the Frankish kingdom.

The politics of the Merovingian dynasty was really not clean (the medieval kingdoms were basically the same), and in the struggle for power, the dynasty Power was gradually transferred to the family of Pippei, the palace prime minister. In the third generation (known as “Pi-Ping III”[2] or “Shorty Pi-Ping”), Pi-Ping finally seized the throne in 751. Pope St. Zacharias sent an archbishop to Paris to crown Pepin, which was the beginning of the “divine right of kings” in Europe and the end of the Merovingian Dynasty, founding of the Caroline Dynasty[3]. In 754 A.D., Pepin granted a piece of land to the Pope for the establishment of a “Papal States”, which is now the Vatican[4]. This was the forerunner of the famous “dedication of the soil by Pippin”.

After the death of Pippin, his son Charlemagne[5] succeeded his father on the throne and became the second Carolingian monarch. European history has an extremely important influence, the status is equal to the Chinese history of the Qin Emperor and the Han Wu, poker in the king of hearts is his (poker). (Yes, I can’t afford it!)

Charlemagne further reinforced the tradition of divine right of kingship, which until Pepin had been a fragmented chant in various parts of Christendom, such as Ambrose Chant in Milan, Mozarabic Chant in Spain and Portugal, Celtic Chant in Ireland and Scotland. etc. Pippin forced the introduction of the Roman liturgy and chant during his reign, and his son, Charlemagne, furthered this and eventually contributed to the A hybrid with a Roman chant as the mainstay: the Gregorian chant. The story of this process is known as the Gallic Renaissance.

Charlemagne’s conquests made the Frankish dynasty so powerful that he became known as “the father of Europe”. In 814, this legendary emperor died of a cold.

At the same time, in the British Isles, the Angles and Saxons, another branch of the Germanic peoples, established seven kingdoms, known as the “Age of Seven Kingdoms,” which marked a new era in European history.

3. Re-disintegration and the basic structure of Europe was established.

According to the Germanic tradition, when an elder dies, the inheritance is divided equally among the younger generations. After the death of Charlemagne, his three grandsons divided the territory of the Caroline dynasty, which was divided into three kingdoms: the West Frankish kingdom (today’s (predecessor and prototype of France), Middle Frankish Kingdom (predecessor and prototype of present-day Italy), East Frankish Kingdom (predecessor and prototype of present-day Germany) .

At almost the same time, the Kingdom of Wessex, far away in the British Isles, annexed the remaining six kingdoms, and the Kingdom of England was born. (Compare this to the Warring States period in China, which is amazingly similar.)

Since then, the pattern of Europe was basically established, the medieval warfare also began to be relatively less, the whole of Europe entered a period of relative stability, the economy gradually had a recovery, the population also began to grow.

4, the waves rise again, the Holy Roman Empire, the Crusades, the dawn of modernity

After the division of the Frankish dynasty into three, Europe had a good time, but it didn’t last long. In 911 AD, the Caroline dynasty of the Eastern Franks died out, and the Otto family took over the power, Otto the Great thought he was so powerful that he was as powerful as the historical Roman Empire, so he changed the name of the Eastern Franks to the “Roman Empire”, and his successors added the word “divine”.

In 1152 A.D., Frederick I[6] was elected king of the Eastern Franks, the second monarch of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. The Holy Roman Empire reached its medieval peak in his hands. His fame is of great importance throughout European history. During his lifetime, he invaded Italy six times (though he failed in all of them), and is best known for leading the Third Crusade with Richard the Lionheart. One of his most famous events was the Third Crusade, which he led with Richard the Lionheart[7].

As we have seen in Ancient Greece and Rome, the Western Roman Empire fell, but the Eastern Roman Empire survived and had Christianity in its territory. The place of pilgrimage – Jerusalem [8]. In the 7th century A.D., Islam emerged in the Arabian Peninsula, and coincidentally, its holy site was just as much Jerusalem, and the Muslims Prevailed by force and defeated the armies of the Eastern Roman Empire in 636 A.D. In 638 A.D., Islam took over the Jerusalem.

The Crusades were essentially a massive religious struggle between Christianity and Islam to recover the Holy Land, Jerusalem. From the first expedition in 1095 to the complete failure of the ninth in 1291, which lasted for 196 years and involved nine battles. The end result was a crushing defeat for the Crusaders and a significant setback to Christian influence and prestige.

Although the Crusades were a crushing defeat in historical terms, the historical event still had far-reaching consequences for Europe at the time, notably in these ways.

The Church’s prestige slipped and its control declined, preparing the way for the Renaissance and the Reformation.
Trade routes between Europe and the Middle East were opened, capitalism had better conditions for development, and the bourgeoisie began to grow.
There was a cultural and technological exchange between Europe and the Middle East, Arabic numerals, compasses, gunpowder, etc., began to arrive in Europe, and veterans of the Crusades saw things that could not be seen in their villages and brought them back to their homelands, providing material for the creative fields of Europe and laying the foundations for the Renaissance.
Generally speaking, the Crusades opened the eyes of Europeans to the world and paved the way for the whole of Europe to adjust its state and gather momentum.

II. Music of the Middle Ages
In this section of formal music history, the music of the Middle Ages presents many characteristics that can be analyzed from many angles.

1、Religious music and secular music

1) Religious music: in the Middle Ages, Catholicism[9] held absolute authority in Europe. Since the Carolingian Renaissance, Gregorian chant has become the official chant of the Church, emphasizing solemnity and dignity, and forbidding the use of musical instruments (The use of the organ is later permitted.) Gregorian chant is monophonic weave with no definite rhythmic vocal music, sung in Latin, and can be described as medieval monophonic weave The most typical representation of the music.

There are four main types of Gregorian chant: syllabic (one word to one note), chant (one note to many words), syllabic (one word to many notes), and floric (one word to many notes).

Share Gregorian Chant (source: Himalayan Tease Radio).

The most important rite for the use of the chant is the Mass, which is translated from the Latin word misa, meaning “gathering”, and is divided into two categories: the daily Mass and the liturgical Mass.

There are five sets of regular Masses, including.

Sutra of Compassion (Kyrie)
Gloria (Gloria)
The Lamb’s Bible (Aguns Dei)
As time went on, ecclesiastical music developed into a polyphonic fabric, and in the 9th century the first polyphonic music was born: Organum, which developed into several forms, giving birth to the first “imitation polyphony”, the now familiar Canon, which, of course, was to come later and will be discussed in detail in the polyphonic music section.

They were both musicians and poets, and wrote in the ancient Provencal dialect (as opposed to the Latin of church chant), mostly about love and occasionally criticizing the times.

Under their influence, another group of troubadours, Trouvere, appeared in northern France, essentially imitating The Troubadour of southern France has not changed much. Germany, under French influence, also saw the emergence of troubadours, and the history of music calls the German medieval troubadours “oenophiles”, who were basically… It is a copy of the French troubadours.

The most noteworthy thing is that the minstrels had already developed the concept of the AAB form, in which the same melody is sung at the beginning of a song with different lyrics, which is known in music history as the “bar form”.

Unlike religious music, secular music makes extensive use of musical instruments and does not often use church tunings, but rather has both Ionian and Ionian tunings (predecessors of modern major and minor tunings).

Sharing some medieval folk music, reworked by the modern day, of course, from ancient sheet music (source: Himalayan Tease Meow Radio).

These pieces use a very wide range of instruments, such as lutes, cioppets, old trombones, etc., creating a completely different atmosphere from religious music and closer to the popular music we listen to today (this also has to do with the choice of key).

There is some historical background to be explained: the bards of the time travelled widely, often to various courts, and the theme of love is the most photographed. It is also related to courtly love. The second song was written by a troubadour to the wife of a court earl, and the countess fell in love with the troubadour. Poet. Poet’s blood, nice, poor Earl’s head is green.

The secular music section will be covered here first.

2. Monophonic and polyphonic weaves

The monophonic weave is very well understood, there is only one voice in the whole song, there are many chants even though there are multiple choruses, but the singing is still only one voices, so it remains a monophonic weaving. The focus of this section is on polyphonic music.

① The earliest polyphonic music: the Organum (Olgarnon)

In the 9th century A.D., some monks began to experiment with adding a melodic line of parallel fourths or fifths to Gregorian chant, and the first polyphonic music was born.

Gradually, over time, the Algernon took many forms.

Parallel Olgarnon: the initial form of the Olgarnon, adding a parallel fourth or fifth melody above or below the chant. to enhance the impact of the chant. The melody of the chant is called a definite melody (in the sense that a second melody is composed on the basis of this melody).
Parallel Olgarnon (free or reversed): Parallel Olgarnon because the added melody is a parallel fourth or fifth, which means that the added melody is in the same direction as the chant melody, but this variation is different, the added melody is not the same as the chant, but can be changed freely, including the opposite of the chant melody (i.e. the chant melody goes up, the added melody goes down).
The new melody corresponds to a dozen or more notes. One note of the chanting melody, and this form is growing in intensity, which leads to the following chanting melody having to be longer and longer, sometimes Singing a single note requires several people to take turns shifting their breath to hold it, so the definite melody at the bottom is thick and long, and the sung melody at the top is smooth and dynamic. It creates a sense of expansive space. (This is what makes the Gothic style so special musically.)
DISCANT: After the development of the choral oratorio, each note of the sacred chant melody was greatly lengthened and the original Latin rhythm was dismembered. In this case, the church musicians studied six ways of organizing the rhythms to re-organize the upper voices of the flower-singing Olgarnon, which It can be seen as an early prototype of counterpoint. Disconnection, as a compositional technique or style, had a profound influence on future generations.
(ii) New varieties of polyphonic music: conductus, canon, scripture song

Algernon is polyphonic music composed to the definitive melody of Gregorian chant, but it is clear that medieval music could not be only Gregorian. Goliath Chant. After the birth of Discontente, the development of polyphony entered a new phase, with the most far-reaching influences such as Conductus, Canon, and Scripture songs of three kinds.

Conductus: in the 11th-12th centuries AD, under the influence of secular bards, the church began to A new kind of polyphonic music, the Conductus, has emerged. It differs greatly from Algernon in that it no longer uses chant as its definitive melody, but instead creates its own definitive melody, and in the manner of Dieskant. to organize rhythms and weaves.
Canon: Canon can’t be called a genre, it’s more of a compositional technique, or polyphonic form. It would be more appropriate to call it “imitative polyphony”, because canons are based on continuous imitation. The first voice comes in, called the “main clause”, and the second voice comes in later with exactly the same intervallic structure as the first. In the later stages of development, the number of voices gradually increased, but the basic idea remained the same: continuous imitation.
In the late 13th century, musicians perfected the clausula, which became the scripture song.
3. Notation and music theory

This section focuses on medieval contributions to music theory and notation. The main focus is on the concept of “measure” and the birth of the “quadrille”.

During the Greco-Roman and early medieval periods, notation was very imperfect, firstly because of its inability to record pitches accurately, and secondly because of its lack of accuracy. is the inability to accurately record the duration of a tone, let alone the concept of rhythm. The focus of medieval music theory research, therefore, was to address these two issues.

1) Newm’s score, the quadrille and the guido

In the early Middle Ages, monks and church musicians also attempted to record music, resulting in the more representative early Nummer scores [11].

It can be seen that even though Newm’s score already had the concept and idea of a line score, it was difficult to record the rhythms accurately and seemed rather vague, because the concept of quantified notes did not exist at this time.

The earliest Neum scores had only one line, which gradually developed into two and three lines.In the 11th century, the most important musicians of the Middle Ages. One of the composers, Guido Arezzo [12], who developed the Num score into four lines from the original, and formed the five lines for the five lines The groundwork is laid.

His other two major achievements were the creation of the six-tone scale, with a choral name assigned to each note (essentially the forerunner of the modern first-name system), where notes were previously sung with lyrics, but starting with the Guido, notes began to have their own choral names; and the invention of the “Guido hand” to help people memorize scales and choral names, which was so efficient that, given the technology of the time, it took ten years of study to learn what the Guido hand was used to, but since its inception, the learning time has been reduced to five months, a truly pioneering invention of the Middle Ages.

Franco, Quantitative notation.

This section begins with two major problems to be solved by medieval music: pitch and duration. Guido essentially solved the first, and the second was solved by the 13th century German music theorist, Canon Franco, in his book “Quantitative proposed and attempted to be solved in The Art of Song.

In this work, for the first time, the idea of a proportional duration of the notes was proposed, divided into four forms: doubly long notes, long notes, short notes, and doubly short notes. . Interestingly, while Franco believed that trituration was the perfect way to divide notes (e.g. a long note can be divided into three short notes). However, the division between the doubled long note and the long note is dichotomous, meaning that a doubled long note can be divided into two long notes.

It is clear that this attempt succeeded in opening up an important step in the quantification of notes, and that the medieval musicians represented in Guido, Franco and others’ Thanks to the constant efforts of the musicians, the notation gradually matured and laid the most important step for the rapid development of the music that followed. After all, without notation, it would have been difficult to develop compositional theory, music research theory, etc., because only if one could first record the Figure out how to study in order to progress.

4. Late medieval, religious polyphonic music in its fullest form: the Notre Dame School.

During the medieval period, polyphony developed mainly in the milieu of religious music, and around the 12th to 13th century, the Notre Dame School was born in Notre Dame, Paris, France, a school that was the center of the development of late medieval polyphony, where it was fully developed in quantity and quality worthy of the medieval extremes.

In addition, the theory of notation, as represented by Guido and Franco, was also fully practiced here. Many rhythmic patterns were innovated, and polyphony developed to its medieval zenith.

There were two masters of this school of music, Léonan and Perrotin, who are the earliest known composers[13] and a little before Marceau.

(Sadly, Notre Dame de Paris suffered a fire and it is not known how much of it will be restored)

III. Late Middle Ages, Art Nouveau Splendor
The 150 years or so between 1300 and 1453 are what art history calls the “Art Nouveau” period, which I have singled out. It’s because it’s a time of inheritance, as a transition between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. However, the main reason I still classify him as medieval is that this phase of musical development is still primarily an inheritance and refinement of the prior The musical results, the innovations are few.

One must mention the French master and the first composer in the history of Western music whose works have survived with clarity: Guillaume de Marceau.[14]

There are three main areas of Mashaw’s work.

He composed 23 scripture songs, mostly in three parts, with French lyrics and French nursery rhymes or ballads instead of chant melodies.
Although he composed only one Mass, the Messe de Notre Dame, he wrote his first five masses as a whole: the Mass of Mercy, the Mass of Glory, the Mass of Faith, the Mass of the Holy Spirit and the Mass of the Lamb.
He often wrote some non-religious music for the nobles, that is, the “caveman” of the Middle Ages, and secular songs can even be said to be the most important field of writing for him.

From then on, Europe gradually got rid of its ignorance and numbness, and entered the Renaissance period, when music, under the call of the times, began to show many new characteristics.

Renaissance, Europe’s opening tour is about to begin.

IV Closing Thoughts.

The Middle Ages up to 1000 years, although in the ignorance and numbness in the slow development, can eventually lay the foundation for the later explosive development of Europe, Europe seems to modern development like hanging, in essence is to pay a long time cost for the price, can be said to be a perfect interpretation of the word “thick and thin”.

Europe, this group of people, absolutely have its terrible place, China is a great country, even if not afraid, also can not despise this group of people, learn from each other, common progress, China’s music and even in various fields, I believe that can be a higher level.