The History of Western Music in My Eyes [II. Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome]

When talking about ancient Greece and ancient Rome, the image in everyone’s mind is probably those bearded statues, or the philosophy of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, the science of Archimedes, etc. However, when it comes to music, many people may be blurred.

Strictly speaking, this chapter is the most difficult to write, after all, the ancient Greek and Roman music, that is basically only textual records of some fragments, not even the formation of notation, which gives me to describe the music of this period, invariably increased the difficulty, after all, the music of the Middle Ages can barely be reproduced, the music of the ancient Greek and Roman period is really only from the text of a glimpse of the charm.

I. Those people and those things in ancient Greece and ancient Rome

This phase is divided into, Ancient Greece (c. 1650 ~ 146 B.C.) and Ancient Rome (146 B.C. ~ 476) Two periods whose history can be subdivided into several epochs. This section quickly clarifies, in as brief a language as possible, some of the major historical events of the last thousand years of the history of ancient Greece and Rome. Convenient to set the stage for the rest of the story.

A particularly interesting thing to say at the outset is that while ancient Greece and Rome were the source of Western civilization, today’s Europeans, and the The people of the ancient Greek and Roman periods were largely unrelated by blood. The vast majority of Europeans today are descendants of the Germans, Slavs and Celts. These three nations were scorned by the Romans as “the three barbarians” during the time of the Roman Empire, which led to the fall of the Roman Empire. The Germans played a big role, what a turn of events, the heavens have spared no one (dog’s head)

1. Ancient Greece (c. 1650~146 B.C.)

1. the Mycenaean civilization (c. 1650~1100 B.C.): it originated at a distance from the Greek mainland. Crete, located in the Aegean Sea [1]. Therefore, some people also divide this period into two and call them the Cretan and Mycenaean civilizations. The most famous event of this period was the Trojan War [2], from which the historical allusion to the Trojan horse came, and later on The Iliad in Homer’s epic is based on this historical event.

Homer’s period (1100-800 B.C.): This period is naturally based on the famous blind Greek poet Homer’s poem “The Iliad”, which is based on the historical event of Homer. Names are given by name, and most of what is known about this period comes from the Homeric poems. The most important event of this period was the invasion of Greece by the Dorians[4] and the Greeks began to set sail for Crete. and part of it went to the Aegean Sea and the coasts of Asia Minor, which made the Aegean Sea the inland sea of Greece.

(iii) The City-State and Archaic periods (800-338 B.C.): also known as the Classical period. The chronological definition of this period has traditionally been somewhat controversial, but I argue from a materialistic point of view that this period. As Greek civilization entered the territorial limits of the Greek mainland, the mountainous and fragmented land, the city-state became the most widespread expression of power and society, and thus made the This division of time. The most famous city-states of this period are Athens, Sparta[5] and Thebes, and the most famous events are the Hippo War[6] and the Peloponnesian War [7]. After the Peloponnesian War, Greek democracy began to weaken and the Hellenistic period came.

④ Hellenistic period (336-31 B.C.): in 336 B.C., Alexander [8] inherited his father’s throne and became king of the kingdom of Macedonia. Alexander conquered the four corners of the earth and surpassed his ancestors in merit, causing many of the Greek city-states to submit. Macedonia was originally an obscure region in northern Greece, but it was the last to laugh. It is noteworthy that Alexander did not really unify Greece, but more in the flavor of an allied ally that forced Greece to The city states submitted. He eventually died young, followed by the Roman invasion in 146 B.C. and the fall of Greece.

2. ancient Rome (753 B.C. ~ 476)

① Roman Kingship (753~509 B.C.): also known as the Roman Tribal Period, this period began with the B.C. Rome was marked by the founding of the city in 753. Rome’s home at that time was on a few small dirt slopes on what is now the Italian peninsula, and Rome was still gathering strength at this time, when it was still Greek world.

② During the Roman Republic (509~27 B.C.): in 509 B.C., the Roman tribes rose to power and established a republic. The Roman Republic was founded. The most famous of this system were the consuls and the senate, which began with a term of office for the consuls and gradually evolved into a lifetime dictatorship. The consul, best known as Caesar[9], was assassinated by the Senate, although his nephew Octavian [ 10] turned back and eventually became the first head of state of the Roman Empire, and Rome entered the Roman Imperial Period.

(iii) Roman Imperial Period (27 B.C ~ 476): since Octavian became the first head of the Roman Empire, the map of Rome Rapidly expanding, it eventually became a vast empire spanning Asia and Africa and Europe, far superior to that of ancient Greece. By the time of Diocletian[11], the Roman Empire was growing weaker, and Diocletian divided Rome into the Eastern and Western Roman Empires. Two emperors ruled under each emperor, known as the “Four Emperors”, but were unable to save the Roman Empire from decline. In 325 A.D., Constantine the Great[12] briefly reunified the Roman Empire until 476 B.C., when, as mentioned above, the Roman Empire was reunited. As stated, the Western Roman Empire was invaded by the Germans to the north and it fell.

What about the Eastern Roman Empire? He lived well for another thousand years until the West entered the Renaissance and the Eastern Roman Empire fell. Different lives for the same people (dog’s head)

II. Music of Ancient Greece and Rome

Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome were essentially one and the same in music, and as for Ancient Rome, in characteristics Basically in line with Ancient Greece, the comparison differs only in the advances made in musical instruments. So this paragraph focuses on the achievements of ancient Greece in musical genre, music theory, and musical outlook (or musical ethics). There are also the instruments of ancient Greece, and ancient Rome will not be too long.

1: Ancient Greece.

① Ancient Greek musical genres: lyric, cantata and tragedy.

One of the characteristics of ancient Greek music was that the notes and the words were closely related, and that the words took precedence over the notes.

Plato, for one, argued that “rhythm and tune should be made to conform to the words, and not the words should be made to accommodate the rhythm and tune.” This of course seems rather absurd today, but it had a huge impact on the art of music at the time.

Hymns: The earliest recorded music in ancient Greece dates from the Homeric period, which historically was the period of the Great Migration of the Greek population. period, during which the territory of Greece expanded, the Aegean Sea became its inland sea, and eventually four major races were formed, with Doria as the main one . The Greeks produced a type of choral music during this period, the carol. The carol was a choral monophonic[13] weave of music (in fact all music in ancient Greece was monophonic), which was originally Hymns were only meant to glorify the sun god, and later came to refer generically to a genre of choral music that glorified God, the most famous hymns being the sun god hymn and the Ode to the God of Wine. It is worth noting that the Ode to the God of Wine was a precursor to the ancient Greek tragedies.
Lyric: During Homer’s time, the mass migration of the population led to the rapid development of commerce and industry and the accelerated disintegration of clans. This led to the gradual dissipation of the collectivist sentiments of the Greeks, which were replaced by a wealth of individual emotional experiences. Against such a background, a very unique genre was born in ancient Greece – the lyric poem. It seems to be a literary genre, but in fact it is a combination of literature and music, rich in rhythm and beautiful in style. Lyric poetry is divided into many themes, such as satire, lyre, etc. The most outstanding lyric poet recorded is Sappho [14], she is Plato praised her as “the tenth muse”, a poetess of great importance in the history of the West. Although only the text of Sappho’s poem has been handed down to us, I can still feel in its exquisite words that Sappho was playing the lyric. The kind of rhythmic beauty that plays and sings itself.
Ancient Greek tragedy: In the 6th century B.C., from the carols of the goddess of wine emerged Ancient Greek tragedy, the most important of all ancient Greek music. A genre, the opera of the Baroque period had drawn its nourishment from ancient Greek tragedy. The earliest Greek tragedies evolved from festivals that celebrated Dionysus, the god of wine (i.e., cantatas), which became independent. The development of the show gradually expanded from a choir of 2 people to 15 people, usually about 3-5 plays. The theme of the work is mainly based on ancient Greek mythology and the scenes (there was no concept of “curtain” at this time). The main representatives of ancient Greek tragedy are Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. The years in which they lived were the early years, the height and the decline of Greek democracy, respectively, so that the content of their works reflects to some extent The colors of the time. The works represented are Prometheus the Bound (Aeschylus), Oedipus the King (Sophocles), Troy The Women (Euripides), etc.
Ancient Greek drama is not only tragedy, but also comedy, but the achievements and significance of the ancient Greek comedy can not be compared with the tragedy, and the representative of the only Aristophanes has works, compared to the tragedy of the fruitful, indeed relatively little.

② Ancient Greek music theory: four-note sequence and complete sequence system, harmony theory.

Although there was no notation in ancient Greece, there were many philosophers who explored the theory of music. The tetrameter is one of the most important achievements of the ancient Greek music theory. As to who first put forward the tetrameter, it is too far back in time to be found, but some people think it was the famous music theorist of ancient Greece. Aristoxenos [15] (Aristoxenos), although it is not clear whether it is a four-note sequence theory of the proposer, but it is certain that he made a great contribution to the theory.

According to Aristosenos, the complete fourth is the smallest harmonic interval, the first and last two tones of the four-note series form the complete fourth, and the remaining tones make changes within the framework of the fourth, and the first four-note series had only one tone in the middle, and later gave birth to the three basic forms of the natural four-note series, the chromatic four-note series, and the differential four-note series.

This achievement led directly to the formation of the complete system of tone series, the ancient Greek period. It is a scale that uses several (usually 2) tetraphic series to form the lower row of notes, and all of them use the natural tetraphic series.

The ancient Greeks moved up and down and varied the sequence system to obtain a number of scales, each based on several of the important of the tribe to name it.

First, there are four key tonalities

Dorian: mi re do si – la sol fa mi
Phrygian: re do si la – sol fa mi re
Lydian: do si la sol – fa mi re do
Mixo-lydian: si la sol fa – mi re do si

Next are four submodulations that use the above primary modulation as a basis for downward panning full fourths.

Lower Victoria (Hypodorian): la sol fa mi – re do si la
Lower Friesian (Hypophrygian): sol fa mi re – do si la sol
Hypolydian: fa mi re do – si la sol fa
Hypo-Mixo-Lydian: mi re do si – la sol fa mi

Two very important points need to be made. First, the idea of organizing these scale sequences has little to do with today’s concept of tonality, mostly indicating a symbol such as Used to represent the strings of a lira [16] or the pitches of an afro [17], in principle somewhat similar to the modern guitar sextet , denotes position rather than a specific sound; secondly, since the lower mixed Lydia is identical to Doria, we generally consider the ancient Greek There are a total of seven rather than eight scales of sound.

Harmonism: Pythagoras [18] of the ancient Greek period was the first recorded Western writer to use a mathematical approach to explain to people the The great man of musical phenomena, mainly by comparing and calculating different string lengths. He himself did not write, and Euclid [19] elaborated on Pythagoras in his own work, “Seeking the Law from the String Count Ideas, mainly.

String length 9:8, two notes are one whole note apart (this does not refer to a 12th equal tempered semitone), a whole note cannot be divided into two equal semitones.
For 2:1, two notes with an octave interval, an octave less than 6 whole tones is considered as an overlap or repetition.
For 3:2, two intervals of fifths, where the fifth is less than 3 whole tones plus a semitone.
For 4:3, two intervals of four notes, the fourth is less than two whole notes plus a semitone.
Only fourths, fifths, and octaves are harmonious intervals, the rest are discordant intervals.
As you can see, Pythagoras’s theory was very different from the present day twelve averages, but after all, Pythagoras was undoubtedly very forward-thinking to be able to use a mathematical deconstruction of music in the circumstances of the time.

Although in the preliminary stages of exploration, ancient Greek music theory still laid the strongest foundation stone for classical Western music, that is, the initial beginning of organizing notes in the environment of monophonic musical weaves and presenting them in sequences of notes, allowing for the initial exposure of the logical relationship between sounds and tones.

(iii) The ancient Greek view of musical ethics

The ethical view of music is the view and perception of the social functionality and ethical nature of music, which, although not much related to music itself, should be leaned on a little more ideologically and philosophically.

Plato, in his works The Ideal State and Timaeus, has detailed the ethical role of several scales in ancient Greece: ‘Doria’ Wealthy manhood makes one strong and temperate; Phrygia makes one ecstatic; Lydia makes one weak and lascivious; mixed Lydia makes one Sorrow.”

(4) Ancient Greek musical instruments: the lira and the aphoros pipes

Lyre: A very old plucked string instrument with a long history. Originally made of tortoise shell, it has four strings, which are made from animal intestines or tendons, and later developed into seven strings, called ki. The Sala (Kithara), is considered the instrument of the sun god. The lira is characterized by its more narrow resonance box, so it is better suited as a self-playing instrument rather than for larger performance situations .

The Aulos, a wind instrument of the ancient Greek period, is the ancestor of modern wind music. The Aulos consists of two pipes, one long and one short, each with several hole positions. The sound is closer in tone to the oboe in modern brass music, and the aulos, which has two pipes, is capable of producing two notes at once. Like Kisala, which corresponds to the sun god, the aphrodisiac was considered the instrument of the goddess of wine, and many ancient Greeks generally drank wine and played the aphrodisiac. Los tubes are made together.

2. Ancient Rome

After the fall of ancient Greece in 146 BC, Rome became the successor and champion of its culture, and the music was pretty much the same. Down the line, the changes were not very noticeable, mainly in the advancement of the two instruments and the birth of Christianity [20]. It is worth mentioning that the Romans, although inheriting the musical culture of the ancient Greeks, had a very different attitude, with the ancient Greeks being more The Romans regarded music as a noble accomplishment, while the ancient Romans were more concerned with the hedonistic and practical aspects of music.

1) Warlike peoples, the development of military music

The ancient Romans conquered the world and were an uncompromisingly warlike people, and military music began to develop rapidly in this environment. The ancient Romans began to use a large number of loud brass instruments in military music, in some of the big performances, sometimes up to hundreds of pieces! Even hundreds of wind instruments are compiled, and the atmosphere is extraordinary.

② Hedonism, the birth of the water-pressure organ

The ancient Romans were very keen to watch the gladiatorial battles (a warlike people after all) and the former Colosseum is located in what is now Rome, Italy.

In order to add to the atmosphere while watching the gladiatorial battles, the water-pressure organ was born. This was the earliest pipe organ[21] and became an iconic instrument of the time. (Forgive me, I really can’t find a picture of it)

(3) The Birth of Christianity and Early Christian Music

In the 1st century A.D., Christianity was born in the region of Palestine in ancient Rome, where it was first an illegal religion, spread in secret, and in 313 A.D., Constantine the Great (I’ve talked about this great man before, so you can read back on your own) issued the Edict of Milan, thus making Christianity a legal religion, which grew rapidly, and Constantine himself was baptized into the religion on his deathbed.

The earliest Christian music was solemn, purely vocal, and was opposed to the use of musical instruments. The exuberance and splendor of musical instruments very easily caused the faithful to recall various celebrations, wars, etc., and most of those who could play instruments were folk entertainers, not subject to the The church welcomed it. Even vocal music (chant) was changed from being sung by everyone in the earliest days to being sung only by trained choirs later.

In 476 A.D., the Western Roman Empire fell, but Christianity was handed down, beginning the following 1,000 years of the Middle Ages.

The long, dark medieval period was finally about to begin.

History of Western Music [I. General Introduction]

Western music, a very interesting and wide-ranging concept. The purpose of this series of articles is to give you my perspective on Western music and its history.

We often hear familiar names such as Beethoven, Mozart, Bach, Tchaikovsky, etc. Today, these names are very well known in Western classical music. Today, these names still shine brightly in the history of Western classical music. A richly colored chapter in the treasury of human civilization.

At the outset I must state what I believe to be the correct view of art history, even though the field of music and art is more subjective, it should still always be approached with a materialistic view of history, as will be mentioned several times later.

To give a simple example, music history is divided into time divisions only to facilitate research, and history can never be really broken point type. development. Musicians couldn’t have woken up in the morning of 1600, patted their heads, and said, “It’s Baroque from today, we should write Point Baroque music now.”

The development of music, like any other field of human endeavor, comes little by little and is subject to the many conditions of the times.

To make that clear, we can get down to business.

This is a general introduction to the first part of the article, and we should first be clear about the “West” of Western music and its specific geographical location.

Firstly, from the origins of Western music in ancient Greece and Rome until the 20th century, Europe has been the main development of Western music, with the general lineage extending from the south of Europe to the hinterland of Europe; secondly, in the 20th century, the main development of Western music shifted to the American continent, especially after the two world wars, the United States became the strong development of Western music.

Secondly, the history of Western music has been divided into several temporal divisions. The history of Western music can be roughly divided into seven periods from the ancient Greek era to the 20th century.

1. the Greco-Roman period (c. 1650 B.C[1]~476)

Ancient Greek civilization originated around the 16th century B.C., and by 146 B.C., Rome had conquered Greece and brought about the end of ancient Greece. During this period, Greek civilization went through the Mycenaean period (c. 1650~1100 B.C.), the Homeric period (c. 1100-800 B.C.), the city-state period (about 800-500 B.C.), and the classical period (about 500-500 B.C.). 338 B.C.), and the Hellenistic period (336-31 B.C.) totaling five periods. (For those who are interested, you can find out for yourself.)

After conquering Greece, Rome inherited many of the civilizations and cultures of ancient Greece, including music. Since the birth of Rome, there have been a total of Roman kingship (753~509 B.C.), the Roman Republic (509~27), and the Roman Empire (509~27). B.C), and the three periods of the Western Roman Empire (27 B.C ~ 476). [2]

The ancient Greeks and Romans did not even have notation because of their backward productivity and lack of means and tools to record their sounds. It is almost impossible to pass on to future generations, which has become an eternal shame. But the ancient Greek and Roman seers still had much to show for it, such as many reflections on the ethics of music, the theory of research, some of the first musical genres to be explored, some of the earlier instruments (liras, alsophone, etc.). The birth and development of Christianity, the initial tetrameter series (prototypical tonal formations), etc., all laid the foundation for the Western music of later generations.

2. Medieval period (476-1453)

Middle Ages (Middle Ages), refers to the period after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 A.D., when Europe entered the Middle Ages. The long period of history, which many historians refer to as the “Dark Ages,” began in Europe in 1453. It was during the Renaissance that this proclaimed the end of the Middle Ages. So, the entire Middle Ages lasted for almost 1,000 years.

In the 1st century A.D., Christianity was born, and after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Christianity ruled the spiritual world of the Europeans, coupled with the fact that Europe was in a state of war and chaos at this time, various peoples were establishing their own regimes, the Crusades, the Black Death and other diseases rampant, Europe at that time can be said to be the worst ever, it is said that the average life expectancy was even less than 40 years.

The Middle Ages was the true starting point for the history of Western music, and many of the achievements in the field of music began to originate during this time and influenced future generations for millennia.

The Middle Ages had several key words that could not be detoured, religious music, secular music, polyphony[3], notation, and music theory. These results are inseparable from the specific European realities of the time. Religious music of the time developed greatly, giving birth to a wide variety of genres; the medieval counterpart to religious music was secular music. In the past, different ethnic groups and regions have produced many distinctive secular vocal genres, such as bar form, bar chant, and bar chant. Lauda hymns (laude), etc.

Religious music and secular music have very sharp contrasts in terms of modulation, instrumentation, lyrics and even the venues used.

The Middle Ages also saw the birth of the first European polyphonic music, and the development of notation and music theory. For example, Canon, as it is known today, is actually a compositional technique that originated in the Middle Ages.

In general, although classical music was in its infancy during the Middle Ages, its millennia of accumulation and several extremely important achievements laid a very solid foundation for its subsequent development.

3. The Renaissance (1453-1600)

Renaissance, a period of about 150 years of Western history after the long Middle Ages Historical period. This was a period when people began to free their eyes and minds from God and Goddess and focus more on man himself. Art was similarly more focused on the human self.

The definition of the time of the Renaissance has been disputed by historians, and in fact the earliest Renaissance ideas would have been from the early 14th century onwards The period from 1300 to 1453 is often referred to as the “Art Nouveau”[4] period, which is the period of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. I see the Art Nouveau period as a buffer zone between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

As I said at the beginning of this essay, history is inherently impossible, and the division of time is for the sake of better research and does not imply that the period of the Middle Ages was a period of “art nouveau”[3]. The inter-temporal period is the break. But as a matter of personal habit, I generally assign the Art Nouveau period to the Middle Ages for study.

The Renaissance succeeded the Middle Ages, and religious and secular music each had its own fruitfulness. This period produced many schools of music, such as Burgundian, Flemish, Roman, and Venetian, and in the polyphonic There have been great technical breakthroughs in vocal music; in secular music, France, Germany, Italy, etc., have their own sizeable Vocal genre. (e.g., the Italian pastoral, which greatly influenced later opera and is even considered a precursor to opera)

It is worth noting that vocal music developed during the Renaissance, and some of the early instrumental genres based on them began to appear in the late Renaissance. Although these genres were only in their infancy at the time, they served as a precursor to the explosion of instrumental music genres that followed in the Baroque era.

4. Baroque period (1600-1750)

Baroque, from the Portuguese word meaning “irregular pearl”, i.e., containing “grotesque,” “grotesque,” or “pearly” pearls. Baroque” means “messy beauty”. In the history of art, the word “baroque” was first used to refer to the architectural style, which is characterized by ornate and precise carvings, grand architectural patterns. Borrowed from post-musical history, the music of the “baroque” is characterized by a magnificent quality and a great deal of sophistication. The can-do.

The Baroque starts and ends with one marker each: around 1600 was the birth of opera, and 1750 was the death of the musical giant Bach.

The music of the Baroque era is marked by several very iconic features, the digital bass [5], the improvisational treatment, the focus on concertos, and the Emotional factors, etc. And in terms of texture, the Baroque era was the peak era of polyphonic music and began the transition to the main key [6].

The instrumental genre of this era was greatly developed, and the instrumental music of the Baroque era was even as good as the powerful vocal music. gave birth to many early instrumental genres, such as the Baroque concerto (represented by Corelli, Vivaldi, Bach, etc.). Sonatas from the Baroque period (better known as D. Scarlatti), toccata (represented by Bach) , Suite (with Bach as the representative), etc. (So you should be able to see why Bach can be so awesome)

The vocal genre of this era also saw great breakthroughs, with the greatest achievement being the birth of opera, represented in the early years by Monteverdi, A. Scarlatti in Italy; Lully, Rameau in France; Purcell in England, Handel in Germany, and so on. There were other famous vocal genres of the same era, such as the cantata, the oratorio, the Passion, etc. (Bach wrote a great deal of cantatas, the (The creative energy of this big guy really never ceases to amaze me)

The greatest musical theoretical achievement of the Baroque period, in my opinion, was the beginning of the 12 equal temperament [7] on the keyboard. application, replacing previous tonal systems and tonal doctrines, which contributed to the prosperity of Baroque polyphony and the later The foundation was laid for the development of major-key music during the Classical period, and the number one contributor to this breakthrough was the great J. S. Bach ( God, is he omnipotent?)

In general, the music of the Baroque era follows the intellectual core of the Renaissance and possesses an extraordinary charm.

5. the classical period (1750-1827)

The Classical period, first of all, is conceptually different from classical music, and in the history of music, classical music is defined in a narrow and broad sense.

In the history of music, the identification of “classical music” is divided into a narrow sense and a broad sense. In the narrow sense, it refers specifically to the music of the second half of the 18th century to the 1820s, which was born in Vienna with the wave of the Enlightenment. The Viennese classical school of music, the music they composed. This school is represented by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and, more generally, by the professional music of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. Musical compositions such as those of the Baroque, Classical, and even later Romantic eras can be loosely classified as Classical music.

The “Classical Period” is the period of almost 70 years in the history of music, the period that followed the Baroque era and the Age of Enlightenment Romanticism. of time, because during these 70 years, the development of music took on many qualities that differed from those of the Baroque era, and these in turn contributed to the The foundation for the development of music in the Romantic era was laid. Therefore, following the above narrow and broad subdivision of “classical music”, the term “classical music” in general music history probably refers to the former. .

The classical period is still rather vague in its temporal positioning, and as I said at the beginning of this view of art history, music is not a quick fix. The delineation of eras is just for ease of research, and you can’t really take a categorical view of music history. Nonetheless, I use the death of Bach (1750) to the death of Beethoven (1827) as a starting point to divide classicalism Period this about 70 years or so.

The contribution of the classical era to music, in my opinion, is threefold: firstly, the identification of several important genres of instrumental music (sonata, concerto, symphony, string quartet); secondly, the technical progress of composition compared to the baroque era (simplification of motives, key music, clear bass notation, etc.); thirdly, the reform of opera, which gave a new life to opera and laid the foundation for the development of opera in the Romantic period.

Late in the Classical period, there was a marked increase in the productivity of Europe, and feudal society began to crumble (e.g., the famous French Revolution was (occurring at this time), the development of the bourgeoisie and the beginnings of urbanization and industrialization, which led a group of musicians to try to get out of the court, developed independently (the first musician in history to be independent of the court was Mozart), and this socio-historical condition is followed by the The Romantic era had a more pronounced manifestation. So, I have to refer back to the view of art history at the beginning of my article.

The music of the Classical period was the peak of traditional instrumental music, and instrumental music was equal to or even superior to vocal music, laying a solid foundation for the development of the following Romantic music.

6. the Romantic period (1800-1900)

Romanticism (Romanticism), and the chronological location is vague, with the approximate date being the home of Romantic music throughout the 19th century.

During Romanticism, Europe was in the midst of sweeping changes. With England taking the lead in completing the Industrial Revolution in 1840, the whole of Europe collectively began a dramatic transformation. Industrialization and urbanization led to significant growth in the instrument manufacturing industry, and musical instruments began to become cheap and affordable for the average family! At the same time, musicians developed in large numbers independently of the court and the aristocracy, giving rise to the professions of music agent and music critic (see below). Schumann used to be a music manager and music critic)

The music of the Romantic period had many new characteristics, which I will briefly explain from two latitudes of musical style and genre development.

Firstly, in the style of the Romantic period, musicians paid more attention to the expression of emotions in music, rather than being satisfied with the classical period. For musical bars. The music of the Romantic period was very different in the areas of harmony, tonality, and so on.

Classical music, refined, rigorous, whether for harmonic writing, harmonic function, orchestral orchestration, and even polyphonic counterpoint, have more stringent rules; Romanticism, the music in the tonal use of frequent distant relations in modulation, making the music has a sense of tonal wandering (which also laid the foundation for the 20th century tuneless music), melodic frequent use of chromatic intervals, harmony also uses a large number of color tone (Schubert is the master of this piece).

Secondly, in terms of genre, instrumental music, the Romantic period, the development of large instrumental genre is relatively small, the development of the focus on piano music-based instrumental pieces (such as Chopin, Mendelssohn) and chamber music; vocal music, the development of the focus is still in the opera, compared to the baroque period and the classical period, the Romantic period of opera presents many different qualities.

It is worth mentioning that throughout the 19th century, due to the development of urbanization, emigration became a norm, so many musicians were in foreign lands, coupled with a series of emotional catalysts such as the “Rivalry Movement”, ethnicity became an important theme in the 19th century Romantic music, many countries emerged national representatives of musicians or national music schools, such as Poland’s Chopin, Russia’s Glinka, Tchaikovsky, “The Five”, Czech Smetana, Norway’s Grieg, Finland’s Sibelius and so on.

Throughout the 19th century Romantic music presented a hazy, irregular sense of wandering that set the stage for the 20th century.

7. 20th Century Music (1900 to present)

As the timeline moves into the 20th century, music takes on a more colorful and diverse quality. During this period, there were many events in world history, two world wars, the third technological revolution, etc., which artistically All fields reflected it, such as the fine arts, which gave birth to Impressionism and Expressionism, and literature, which gave birth to Existentialism, Stream of Consciousness. Surrealism, etc., and even more so the emergence of a whole new art form like cinema.

In the first half of the 20th century, impressionist music ( (representing Debussy, Ravel, etc.), Expressionist music (representing Schoenberg, Webern, Berger, etc.), Neoclassical music ( (representing Stravinsky, Hindemith, etc.) These three genres.

The music of the 20th century presents so many different qualities that it is difficult to summarize them carefully; in general, it is based on the Romantic period and is characterized, roughly speaking, by the following five points.

(1) Tonal music is gradually declining. Since the time of the Baroque, the major and minor key system has gradually become the center of traditional musical works, but since the 20th century, many works of tonal It is characterized by a very weak or even complete intonation. During this period there were various approaches, such as some composers who did not use scales in the melodic context, or even more extreme ones who created their own scales. phonetic series.

Harmony is no longer pursued in harmony and balance. Traditional classical music to harmony and balance for the beauty of the harmony, modern music is to break this rule, frequent use of eleven chords, thirteen chords and so on. Highly stacked chords, and the concept of chords no longer being built in a traditional frame (triplets), even in the later stages.

(iii) The rhythm and tempo undergo many changes. Traditionally, the beat and rhythm were the skeleton of the piece, but after the 20th century, the rhythm of many musical pieces began to undergo variations, some using compound rhythms, some even without rhythms, and even more freely arranged by the player.

(4) Differential notes appear in the series. After the 12 equal temperament system was established and applied in the Baroque period, the semitone was regarded as the minimum interval. Bound, began to compose in smaller quarter tones, 1/6 tones, and the Czech composer Haba was truly the first systematic composer who used differential tones to compose, he also founded the Department of Differential Music at the Prague Conservatory.

⑤ There have been many changes in the instrumentation. Traditional classical music emphasizes harmony, balance, and instrumentation that has been explored over the centuries, culminating in a scientific configuration, while modern music has become more and more complex. The music makes heavy use of noise (this noise is a musical concept, not an acoustic one), extreme registers, highlighting percussion. Seeking many new instrument combinations, sound colors.

Concluding Remarks
This is my first article related to the history of Western music, and I am very thankful for the encouragement and support from all the like-minded friends, and I would like to ask all the senior teachers and students for their advice.

I hope that through this series of writing (xia), I can bring you into a new door, popularize some interesting stories in music history, and explain some simple music theory knowledge in layman’s terms, which is my original intention.

Simple music theory for beginners with zero knowledge

The note and its two forms of expression

First, let’s start with the basics, namely the seven basic notes 1234567, also transliterated as do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, xi, which everyone knows (though if this is not known then I can’t do anything about it).

In fact, this is only one of the expressions of the note, which we call chanting, which is a more verbal form, used mostly for singing, but there is another form of expression of the note: chanting.

The sound names are derived from the letters of the alphabet, and there are also seven, for CDEFGAB, corresponding to 1234567. here is a very The interesting phenomenon is that AB, which should have been in the top two, has instead been relegated to the bottom of the chandelier.

The reason is simple: this music theory comes from the West, and the study of Western music theory is dominated by minor keys (i.e. (6712345), Westerners then adopted the first seven of the twenty-six English letters corresponding to the minor key, so ABCDEFG The theory was then transferred to China, where the Chinese people’s thinking was more suited to a major key, and here we are today. .

Sound names and choral names are two sides of the same coin, sound names are more written, choral names are more spoken, and they are also an important bridge between the thinking of the first key and the thinking of the fixed key (this will be discussed later when we explain the key).

In fact, this is just a form of expression, and there is no need to stick to sequences or rules.

The physical properties of sound

There are four physical properties of sound: pitch, volume, time, and timbre.

1, pitch, that is, the height of the sound, the physical performance mainly lies in the number of vibrations per second, in hertz (Hz), such as 440Hz is the meaning of 440 times per second vibration (the physical acoustics involved here in the back of electronic music production also help Oh)!

Many people are confused about the difference between pitch and volume. To put it simply, you press a note A heavily in the lower register of the piano, and gently press a second note B in the upper register of the piano. Large, but the pitch is B high, this point to focus on the distinction.

2, volume, that is, the loudness of the sound. Physical performance mainly lies in the size of the vibration amplitude, in decibels. For example, the sound of the car horn is a high-decibel sound, and the sound of the paper falling to the ground in the dead of night is very light.

3, time, i.e. the length of the sound, which is well understood, 1 second sound and 3 seconds sound, the time is not the same.

4, Tone, which is still well understood, simply put, men and women sound different, pianos and guitars sound different. Cars and alarms don’t sound the same. Everything in the world has its own unique sound.

Music and noise in music

In music theory, it refers to those sounds that have a “fixed vibrational frequency,” meaning a pitch that vibrates at the same frequency every second.

For example, if you press any key on a piano 10,000 times, it will always have the same pitch, no matter how long it takes. This is a musical note, with a fixed frequency.

The opposite concept is “noise”, which is defined in music theory, not in life. (a) The concept of “noise”. It refers to sounds that do not have a fixed frequency of vibration.

Noises that are common in music, such as percussion, like jazz drums, they strike a part of the music, but compared to instruments like pianos and guitars, you will find that they don’t have a precise pitch, and this, is noise.

Noise is an essential part of the music.

This article is purely on the spur of the moment, but I also hope to try to provide some reference for ordinary music lovers, and I also hope that the senior teachers can not stint to give advice if there are any errors in the article, please correct me, thank you.